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This study tested the hypothesis that diffusion tensor imaging can detect alteration in microscopic integrity of white matter and basal ganglia regions known to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology. It was also hypothesized that there is an association between diffusion abnormality and PD severity and subtype. Diffusion tensor imaging at 4(More)
Seizures may occur after orthotopic liver transplantation. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used to treat these seizures, but the immunosuppressant regimen also may be altered. Levetiracetam is an attractive treatment because of its efficacy, lack of hepatic enzyme induction, and its rapid attainment of serum levels. Treatment with levetiracetam is(More)
BACKGROUND Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has recently been suggested for treatment of medication-unresponsive gait and axial symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Patients with the rare primary progressive freezing gait disorder (PPFG) have similar disabling symptoms and few therapeutic options. We report here on our experience with(More)
BACKGROUND Orthostatic tremor (OT) is characterized by high-frequency leg tremor when standing still, resulting in a sense of imbalance, with limited treatment options. Ventral intermediate (Vim) nucleus thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported as beneficial in a few cases. OBJECTIVE To report clinical outcomes, lead locations, and(More)
OBJECT Holmes tremor (HT) is characterized by irregular, low-frequency (< 4.5 Hz) tremor occurring at rest, with posture, and with certain actions, often affecting proximal muscles. Previous reports have tended to highlight the use of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in cases of medication-refractory HT. In this study, the authors report the clinical(More)
OBJECTIVES The globus pallidus internus (GPi) has been the primary target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat severe medication-refractory dystonia. Some patients with primary cervical or segmental dystonia develop subtle bradykinesia occurring in previously nondystonic body regions during GPi DBS. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS may provide an(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical dystonia (CD) is characterized by sustained, involuntary contraction of head and neck muscles. Botulinum toxin injections are established as safe and effective, but unfortunately 15-25% of patients fail to respond. The aim of this study was to examine whether multichannel electromyogaphic mapping improved outcomes in a cohort of(More)
BACKGROUND The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a brainstem structure with widespread connections to the basal ganglia. Despite the recent introduction of PPN deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of gait disorders, little is known about its physiology in humans. METHODS Single unit discharge characteristics of neurons in the PPN region were(More)
BACKGROUND We encountered 15 patients with a newly recognized clinical phenomenon that we term orthostatic myoclonus. We conducted a retrospective chart review to better understand the clinical context and importance of this phenomenon. OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical picture of orthostatic myoclonus. METHODS The Mayo Clinic Rochester Movement(More)