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This study tested the hypothesis that diffusion tensor imaging can detect alteration in microscopic integrity of white matter and basal ganglia regions known to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology. It was also hypothesized that there is an association between diffusion abnormality and PD severity and subtype. Diffusion tensor imaging at 4(More)
OBJECTIVES The globus pallidus internus (GPi) has been the primary target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat severe medication-refractory dystonia. Some patients with primary cervical or segmental dystonia develop subtle bradykinesia occurring in previously nondystonic body regions during GPi DBS. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS may provide an(More)
BACKGROUND Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has recently been suggested for treatment of medication-unresponsive gait and axial symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Patients with the rare primary progressive freezing gait disorder (PPFG) have similar disabling symptoms and few therapeutic options. We report here on our experience with(More)
Seizures may occur after orthotopic liver transplantation. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used to treat these seizures, but the immunosuppressant regimen also may be altered. Levetiracetam is an attractive treatment because of its efficacy, lack of hepatic enzyme induction, and its rapid attainment of serum levels. Treatment with levetiracetam is(More)
BACKGROUND Acquired generalized repetitive myoclonus may be mistaken for tremor. Distinguishing myoclonus has etiologic and therapeutic implications. OBJECTIVE To describe isolated generalized polymyoclonus and the outcomes of etiologic evaluations at the time of diagnosis. DESIGN Computer search of the Mayo Movement Neurophysiology Laboratory database(More)
BACKGROUND Anterocollis is a form of cervical dystonia characterized by forward neck flexion. While botulinum toxin is the treatment of choice for cervical dystonia, patients with anterocollis, who receive injections into the sternocleidomastoid and anterior scalene muscles, represent a disproportionate number of treatment failures. Deep cervical muscles(More)
INTRODUCTION Depletion of neuronal glutathione may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can restore neuronal glutathione levels, but it has not been established whether NAC can cross the blood-brain barrier in humans. METHODS Twelve patients with PD were given oral NAC twice daily for 2 days. Three doses were(More)
OBJECT Holmes tremor (HT) is characterized by irregular, low-frequency (< 4.5 Hz) tremor occurring at rest, with posture, and with certain actions, often affecting proximal muscles. Previous reports have tended to highlight the use of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in cases of medication-refractory HT. In this study, the authors report the clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Orthostatic tremor (OT) is characterized by high-frequency leg tremor when standing still, resulting in a sense of imbalance, with limited treatment options. Ventral intermediate (Vim) nucleus thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported as beneficial in a few cases. OBJECTIVE To report clinical outcomes, lead locations, and(More)