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OBJECTIVE The colonic microbiota ferment dietary fibres, producing short chain fatty acids. Recent evidence suggests that the short chain fatty acid propionate may play an important role in appetite regulation. We hypothesised that colonic delivery of propionate would increase peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in humans, and(More)
Given the location of shadows, how can we obtain high-quality shadow-free images? Several methods have been proposed so far, but they either introduce artifacts or can be difficult to implement. We propose here a simple method that results in virtually error and shadow-free images in a very short time. Our approach is based on the insight that shadow(More)
Berridge's model (e.g. [Berridge KC. Food reward: Brain substrates of wanting and liking. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1996;20:1-25.; Berridge KC, Robinson T E. Parsing reward. Trends Neurosci 2003;26:507-513.; Berridge KC. Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience. Physiol Behav 2004;81:179-209]) outlines the brain substrates thought to mediate food reward(More)
The efficacy of exercise to promote weight loss could potentially be undermined by its influence on explicit or implicit processes of liking and wanting for food which in turn alter food preference. The present study was designed to examine hedonic and homeostatic mechanisms involved in the acute effects of exercise on food intake. 24 healthy female(More)
Current train of thought in appetite research is favouring an interest in non-homeostatic or hedonic (reward) mechanisms in relation to overconsumption and energy balance. This tendency is supported by advances in neurobiology that precede the emergence of a new conceptual approach to reward where affect and motivation (liking and wanting) can be seen as(More)
Eating is an action open to awareness by the individual; however, it cannot be claimed that processes that control the expression of eating habits are necessarily explicit. This distinction between implicit and explicit processes may enhance understanding of the expression of food reward (particularly the concepts of liking and wanting [Berridge, K. C., &(More)
The present study used a measure of trait binge eating (Binge Eating Scale; BES) to examine its association with behavioural markers of appetite and food reward. Non-obese female participants consumed a preload before freely selecting and consuming from a test meal. Subjective hunger and hedonic measures of explicit liking and implicit wanting for food were(More)
BACKGROUND Recent frameworks for understanding food rewards recognize the role of separable affective and motivational processes (liking and wanting) in driving human eating behavior. Separate assessments of liking and wanting may aid in understanding the complex eating-related behaviors seen in anorexia nervosa (AN). OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was(More)
PURPOSE The present research compared a self-report measure of usual eating behaviors with two laboratory-based behavioral measures of food reward and food preference. METHODS Eating behaviors were measured among 233 working adults. A self-report measure was the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) Restraint, Disinhibition and Hunger subscales.(More)
Increases in energy, lipid and carbohydrate intakes during the luteal phase have been previously observed. However, it is not known whether this is due to phase-dependent variations in the reward value of certain foods. Moreover, increases in olfactory sensitivity have been proposed and may be involved in these changes in food reward. Therefore, we examined(More)