Graham D. Bell

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The diversity of specialized cell types ('complexity') is estimated for a wide range of multicellular organisms. Complexity increases with size, independently of phylogeny. This is interpreted in economic terms as the consequence of a greater degree of cooperative division of labour within larger entities. The rate of increase of complexity with size is(More)
Laser scanning has been widely adopted for the digital preservation and study of cultural heritage artifacts. However, surface scans alone are not sufficient for a variety of intricate objects such as the Cantonese chess pieces that were delicately carved from ivory throughout the 19th Century. These pieces incorporate a puzzle ball base, which is comprised(More)
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The conventional literature on telecommunication does not appear to have focused on the various sources of interactions between telecommunication networks and other networked infrastructure. Further, much of the transportation literature suggests that transportation and telecommunication infrastructures are substitutes. The focus of this paper is to examine(More)
Western blotting is among the most common techniques used in molecular biology and a simple way of assessing the presence or absence of a protein. It is also commonly used to compare protein levels in different conditions or in different tissues. This article illustrates some of the easy ways to arrive at a false conclusion when trying to quantify protein(More)
Protein X is a signalling molecule that stimulates apoptosis. Treatment of cells with Protein X results in five times higher levels of cell death than those seen in untreated cells (wild type), as measured by Caspase-positive cells. Based on previous work, the authors identify Protein Y as the putative receptor for Protein X and here try to test whether(More)
In this experiment, the authors were interested in testing the effect of a small molecule inhibitor on the ratio of males and females in the offspring of their model Dipteran species. The authors report that in a wild-type population, ~50 % of offspring are male. They then test the effect of treating females with the chemical, which they think might affect(More)