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The risk of developing colorectal adenomatous polyps is probably increased by a variety of dietary and environmental factors. We found an association with current alcohol and cigarette consumption. The risk of polyps was increased three times in drinkers who did not smoke and two times in smokers who did not drink, with those who both drank and smoked(More)
Smoking is a major risk factor for periodontal disease, causing bone and tooth loss. Effective management of many oral conditions requires accurate information about smoking. We describe a disposable, 10-min, near-patient saliva test to monitor cigarette smoking. A plastic device contains the dried reagents to measure nicotine and its metabolites by a(More)
The Internet needs to evolve from a single-service data network into the multiservice intelligent network capable of satisfying diverse performance requirements. The way network resources, primarily bandwidth, is shared, is one of the key issues in this evolution. This paper analyses the concept of bandwidth partitioning, in which each link in the network(More)
We describe a disposable, near-patient urine test to monitor cigarette smoking. A plastic device contains the sealed dried reagents to measure nicotine and its metabolites, by a colorimetric assay. The device can be used to give a qualitative assessment of tobacco consumption, simply by observing a colour change. Alternatively, the test can be quantified by(More)
BACKGROUND In the fight against the global tuberculosis epidemic, it is essential to ensure that patients adhere to the treatment prescribed. As the treatment is given for a minimum of 6 months it is common for patients not to take their drugs regularly. Strategies are therefore needed to assess adherence to treatment. One established method is to examine(More)
Self-reported information about smoking is imprecise and subject to bias, with accuracy varying according to circumstances. Biochemical assessment gives much clearer indications of the effects of tobacco intake on physiological parameters. As part of a randomized controlled trial, a new point-of-care test for smoking was used as a tool to reduce smoking in(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome in the UK. New tools are needed to improve smoking cessation advice. The aim was to investigate a point-of-care urine test for smoking, to provide feedback to women, to improve awareness about the effects of smoking during pregnancy and to relate the test results(More)
The effect of dietary sodium on the urine dopamine excretion of eight hypertensive patients and six matched controls was studied under metabolic balance conditions over a 2 week period during which dietary sodium intake was increased from 20 to 220 mmol/day. The control group showed the expected increase in dopamine excretion in response to sodium but the(More)