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Dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex undergo activity-dependent structural remodelling that has been proposed to be a cellular basis of learning and memory. How structural remodelling supports synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation, and whether such plasticity is input-specific at the level of the individual spine has(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) at glutamatergic synapses is considered to underlie learning and memory and is associated with the enlargement of dendritic spines. Because the consolidation of memory and LTP require protein synthesis, it is important to clarify how protein synthesis affects spine enlargement. In rat brain slices, the repetitive pairing of(More)
Schaffer collateral axons form excitatory synapses that are distributed across much of the dendritic arborization of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Remarkably, AMPA-receptor-mediated miniature EPSP amplitudes at the soma are relatively independent of synapse location, despite widely different degrees of dendritic filtering. A progressive increase with(More)
Animal behaviors are reinforced by subsequent rewards following within a narrow time window. Such reward signals are primarily coded by dopamine, which modulates the synaptic connections of medium spiny neurons in the striatum. The mechanisms of the narrow timing detection, however, remain unknown. Here, we optically stimulated dopaminergic and(More)
Several caged calciums have been synthesized since 1986, and three are commercially available: DM-nitrophen, NP-EGTA, and nitr-5. Each of these caged compounds has uniquely useful properties, making the choice of which cage to use dependent on the specific experiment (i.e., the cell type and divalent cation requirements of the experiments within purview).(More)
Using calcium-sensitive dyes together with their dextran conjugates and confocal microscopy, we have looked for evidence of localized calcium signaling in the region of the nucleus before entry into mitosis, using the sea urchin egg first mitotic cell cycle as a model. Global calcium transients that appear to originate from the nuclear area are often(More)
Astrocytic endfeet cover the entire cerebral vasculature and serve as exchange sites for ions, metabolites and energy substrates from the blood to the brain. They maintain endothelial tight junctions that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and release vasoactive molecules that regulate vascular tone. Malignant gliomas are highly invasive tumours that use(More)
γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated (GABAergic) inhibition plays a critical role in shaping neuronal activity in the neocortex. Numerous experimental investigations have examined perisomatic inhibitory synapses, which control action potential output from pyramidal neurons. However, most inhibitory synapses in the neocortex are formed onto pyramidal cell dendrites,(More)
Two-photon (2P) uncaging of caged neurotransmitters can efficiently stimulate individual synapses and is widely used to characterize synaptic functions in brain slice preparations. Here we extended 2P uncaging to neocortical pyramidal neurons in adult mice in vivo where caged glutamate was applied from the pial surface. To validate the methodology, we(More)
The developing cochlea of mammals contains a large group of columnar-shaped cells, which together form a structure known as Kölliker's organ. Prior to the onset of hearing, these inner supporting cells periodically release adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), which activates purinergic receptors in surrounding supporting cells, inner hair cells and the(More)