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Seventy one patients with benign oesophageal strictures were randomised to receive balloon or bougie dilatation. Sixty five patients were eligible for analysis. At the end of five months the balloon group had significantly more dysphagia and the calibre of the strictures in the balloon group had narrowed by a greater degree. The methods were equally safe(More)
Fifty patients with medically refractory gastro-oesophageal reflux were treated by the insertion of an Angelchik anti-reflux prosthesis. All patients had a pre-operative upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 32 were investigated with 15 h overnight oesophageal pH studies combined with oesophageal bile sampling and 20 underwent oesophageal manometric studies. At(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate the reasons for the difference in physical stability of two amorphous cefditoren pivoxil samples that had been prepared using spray drying at inlet-air temperatures of 40 degrees C (SD-A) and 100 degrees C (SD-B). The two samples appeared amorphous by powder X-ray diffraction and had indistinguishable glass(More)
The change in surface energy of cefditoren pivoxil powder as a consequence of changes in crystallinity (caused by milling duration) was studied using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) under dry conditions. The surface of the powder became more basic with decreasing crystallinity. It was suggested by considering the results of IR spectra that this resulted(More)
The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and(More)
Purpose. To assess differences in surface energy due to processing induced disorder and to understand whether the disorder dominated the surfaces of particles. Methods. Inverse gas chromatography was used to compare the surface energies of crystalline, amorphous, and ball milled lactose. Results. The milling process made ca 1% of the lactose amorphous,(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the surface energy of amorphous lactose. Two samples of amorphous lactose were investigated; a spray dried 100% amorphous material and a ball milled sample of crystalline lactose. The milled sample had less than 1% amorphous content by mass, but on investigation at 0% RH,(More)
The need to be able to measure amorphous contents in crystalline powders is now recognised. In this review, calorimetric and gravimetric methods are reviewed in a way that should alert workers in the field to the theoretical, and practical considerations which are important to understanding how best to study crystalline samples which contain low levels of(More)
Surfaces of pharmaceutical powders have been assessed using contact angle, inverse phase gas chromatography (IGC) and triboelectric (electrostatic) charging techniques. The suitability of the Dynamic Angle Tester (DAT), an instrument based on the sessile drop technique, in determining contact angles and then the surface energy of pharmaceutical powders was(More)