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The bicyclam AMD3100 (formula weight 830) blocks HIV-1 entry and membrane fusion via the CXCR4 co-receptor, but not via CCR5. AMD3100 prevents monoclonal antibody 12G5 from binding to CXCR4, but has no effect on binding of monoclonal antibody 2D7 to CCR5. It also inhibits binding of the CXC-chemokine, SDF-1alpha, to CXCR4 and subsequent signal transduction,(More)
The beta-chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES inhibit infection of CD4+ T cells by primary, non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 strains at the virus entry stage, and also block env-mediated cell-cell membrane fusion. CD4+ T cells from some HIV-1-exposed uninfected individuals cannot fuse with NSI HIV-1 strains and secrete high levels of(More)
New HIV therapies are urgently needed to address the growing problem of drug resistance. In this article, we characterize the anti-HIV drug candidate 3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl) betulinic acid (PA-457). We show that PA-457 potently inhibits replication of both WT and drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates and demonstrate that the compound acts by disrupting a late(More)
The beta-chemokine receptor CCR-5 is an essential co-factor for fusion of HIV-1 strains of the non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) phenotype with CD4+ T-cells. The primary binding site for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is the CD4 molecule, and the interaction is mediated by the viral surface glycoprotein gp120 (refs 6, 7). The mechanism of CCR-5 function(More)
In this study, we evaluated baseline susceptibility to bevirimat (BVM), the first in a new class of antiretroviral agents, maturation inhibitors. We evaluated susceptibility to BVM by complete gag genotypic and phenotypic testing of 20 patient-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates and 20 site-directed mutants. We found that reduced BVM(More)
In a continuing study of potent anti-HIV agents, seventeen 28,30-disubstituted betulinic acid (BA, 1) derivatives and seven novel 3,28-disubstituted BA analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity. Among them, compound 21 showed an improved solubility and equal anti-HIV potency (EC(50) = 0.09 microM) when compared to(More)
Six 3-substituted 3',4'-di-O-(S)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone derivatives (3-8) were synthesized from 3-methyl DCK (2). 3-Hydroxymethyl DCK (6) exhibited potent anti-HIV activity in H9 lymphocytes with EC(50) and TI values of 1.87 x 10(-4) microM and 1.89 x 10(5), respectively. These values are similar to those of DCK and better than those of AZT in the(More)
We have tested three human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) IgG1b12, 2G12, and 2F5) to the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and a tetrameric CD4-IgG molecule (CD4-IgG2), for the ability to neutralize primary HIV-1 isolates from the genetic clades A through F and from group O. Each of the reagents broadly and potently(More)
CD4-IgG2 is a novel fusion protein comprising human IgG2 in which the Fv portions of both heavy and light chains have been replaced by the V1 and V2 domains of human CD4. This tetrameric protein is being developed as an immunoprophylactic agent to reduce the probability of infection following HIV-1 exposure, in settings such as occupational or perinatal(More)
Nrf2 activators represent a good drug target for designing agents to treat diseases associated with oxidative stress. Building upon previous work, we designed and prepared a series of heterocyclic chalcone-based Nrf2 activators with reduced lipophilicity and, in some cases, greater in vitro potency compared to the respective carbocyclic scaffold. These(More)