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In industrialized countries the incidence of diseases caused by immune dysregulation has risen. Epidemiologic studies initially suggested this was connected to a reduction in the incidence of infectious diseases; however, an association with defects in immunoregulation is now being recognized. Effector T(H)1 and T(H)2 cells are controlled by specialized(More)
The metabolism of the amino acid L-tryptophan is a highly regulated physiological process leading to the generation of several neuroactive compounds within the central nervous system. These include the aminergic neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), products of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism (including 3-hydroxykynurenine,(More)
In the rich, developed parts of the world there has been a steady and simultaneous increase in at least three groups of disease: (1) allergies, (2) inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; e.g. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) and (3) autoimmunity (e.g. type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis). Because the medical world is so compartmentalised it was some(More)
Chronic inflammatory diseases (autoimmunity, allergy and inflammatory bowel diseases) are increasing in prevalence in urban communities in high-income countries. One important factor is reduced exposure to immunoregulation-inducing macro- and microorganisms and microbiota that accompanied mammalian evolution (the hygiene hypothesis or 'Old Friends'(More)
Salmonella typhi continues to cause severe disease in many parts of the world, its most feared complication being perforation of ulcerated Peyer's patches within the small intestine, leading to peritonitis with associated mortality. The pathogenesis of this process is not well understood. In this article, we present a theoretical mechanism as to how(More)
Heat shock proteins (HSP) have been implicated in rodent models of autoimmunity, particularly arthritis, and there is suggestive though inconclusive evidence that they may also play a role in human autoimmune disease. The simplest hypothesis is based on molecular mimicry due to the amino-acid sequence homology between mammalian and microbial HSP. Recently(More)
CONTEXT Inflammation is increasingly recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD), even in individuals who are otherwise medically healthy. Most studies in search of sources for this increased inflammation have focused on factors such as psychosocial stress and obesity that are known to activate inflammatory processes(More)
Models currently occupy the crucial first step in the research flow for the development of new drugs and vaccines. Some animal models are better at reflecting the host-pathogen interaction in humans than others; this depends on the pathogen and its host specificity. Data gathered from what are often poorly adapted models provide a mosaic of sometimes(More)
Studies of IL-4 have revealed a wealth of information on the diverse roles of this cytokine in homeostatic regulation and disease pathogenesis. Recent data suggest that instead of simple linear regulatory pathways, IL-4 drives regulation that is full of alternatives. In addition to the well-known dichotomous regulation of Th cell differentiation by IL-4,(More)
Major depression is common in the context of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and is frequently associated with persistently raised levels of proinflammatory cytokines and other markers of inflammation, even in the absence of another diagnosable immune pathology to account for these findings. Therefore immunoregulation-inducing vaccines or manipulations(More)