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Microdroplets have great potential for high-throughput biochemical screening. We report the design of an integrated microfluidic device for droplet formation, incubation and screening. Picolitre water-in-oil droplets can be stored in a reservoir that contains approximately 10(6) droplets. In this reservoir droplets are stable for at least 6 h, which gives(More)
Determining cell mechanical properties is increasingly recognized as a marker-free way to characterize and separate biological cells. This emerging realization has led to the development of a plethora of appropriate measurement techniques. Here, we use a fairly novel approach, deterministic lateral displacement (DLD), to separate blood cells based on their(More)
We describe the development of an enzyme assay inside picoliter microdroplets. The enzyme alkaline phosphatase is expressed in Escherichia coli cells and presented in the periplasm. Droplets act as discrete reactors which retain and localize any reaction product. The catalytic turnover of the substrate is measured in individual droplets by monitoring the(More)
We describe the design, fabrication and use of a single-layered poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic structure for the entrapment and release of microdroplets in an array format controlled entirely by liquid flow. Aqueous picoliter droplets are trapped en masse and optically monitored for extended periods of time. Such an array-based approach is used to(More)
Water-in-oil microdroplets in microfluidics are well-defined individual picoliter reaction compartments and, as such, have great potential for quantitative high-throughput biological screening. This, however, depends upon contents of the droplets not leaking out into the oil phase. To assess the mechanism of possible leaking, the retention of various(More)
A microfluidic device capable of storing picoliter droplets containing single bacteria at constant volumes has been fabricated in PDMS. Once captured in droplets that remain static in the device, bacteria express both a red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) and the enzyme, alkaline phosphatase (AP), from a biscistronic construct. By measuring the fluorescence(More)
Although cellular mechanical properties are known to alter during stem cell differentiation, understanding of the functional relevance of such alterations is incomplete. Here, we show that during the course of differentiation of human myeloid precursor cells into three different lineages, the cells alter their viscoelastic properties, measured using an(More)
We present a versatile method for selective mode coupling into higher-order modes of photonic crystal fibers, using holograms electronically generated by a spatial light modulator. The method enables non-mechanical and completely repeatable changes in the coupling conditions. We have excited higher order modes up to LP(31) in hollow-core photonic crystal(More)
We have developed a real time interface for holographic optical tweezers where the operator's fingertips are mapped to the positions of silica beads captured in optical traps. The beads act as the fingertips of a microhand which can be used to manipulate objects that otherwise do not lend themselves to tweezers control, e.g. objects that are strongly(More)
Microdroplets show great promise as a new high-throughput technology in chemistry, biochemistry, and molecular biology. Microdroplets can be generated at rates in excess of several thousands per second and accurately formulated using minute amounts of small molecules, DNA, proteins, or cells. Furthermore, integrated active elements can be used to control(More)