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Traditionally, organisms responsible for major biogeochemical cycling processes have been determined by physiological characterization of environmental isolates in laboratory culture. Molecular techniques have, however, confirmed the widespread occurrence of abundant bacterial and archaeal groups with no cultivated representative, making it difficult to(More)
Thaumarchaeota form a ubiquitously distributed archaeal phylum, comprising both the ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) and other archaeal groups in which ammonia oxidation has not been demonstrated (including Group 1.1c and Group 1.3). The ecology of AOA in terrestrial environments has been extensively studied using either a functional gene, encoding ammonia(More)
Autotrophic ammonia oxidation is performed by two distinct groups of microorganisms: ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB). AOA outnumber their bacterial counterparts in many soils, at times by several orders of magnitude, but relatively little is known of their physiology due to the lack of cultivated isolates. Although a(More)
In this study, we investigated the impact of soil pH on the diversity and abundance of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in 27 different forest soils across Germany. DNA was extracted from topsoil samples, the amoA gene, encoding ammonia monooxygenase, was amplified; and the amplicons were sequenced using a 454-based pyrosequencing approach. As expected, the ratio(More)
Ammonia oxidation is the first and rate-limiting step in nitrification and is dominated by two distinct groups of microorganisms in soil: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). AOA are often more abundant than AOB and dominate activity in acid soils. The mechanism of ammonia oxidation under acidic conditions has been a(More)
Studies of the distribution of ammonia oxidising archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) suggest distinct ecological niches characterised by ammonia concentration and pH, arising through differences in substrate affinity and ammonia tolerance. AOA form five distinct phylogenetic clades, one of which, the 'Nitrososphaera sister cluster', has no cultivated isolate.(More)
Nitrogen fertilization and returning straw to paddy soil are important factors that regulate CH4 production. To evaluate the effect of rice straw and/or nitrate amendment on methanogens, a paddy soil was anaerobically incubated for 40 days. The results indicated that while straw addition increased CH4 production and the abundances of mcrA genes and their(More)
Background. The incidence of paediatric nontraumatic clavicle lesions is unknown and there is limited literature regarding the management of such patients. Methods. A review of a prospectively complied radiological database held at the study was conducted for a defined 10-year period. The study centre is the only paediatric service available for a defined(More)
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