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O ne of the more stunning features of the images of earth from space are the clouds that move around our planet in quasi-organized large-scale systems (e.g., Rossow and Cairns 1995). The character and movement of these coherent cloud features are primarily governed by the large-scale atmospheric circulation and, as such, are an essential manifestation of(More)
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission will make the first global, space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize CO 2 sources and sinks on regional scales. The measurement approach and instrument specifications were determined through an analysis of existing carbon(More)
1. An apparent inconsistency has been diagnosed between interannual variations in the net radiation imbalance inferred from satellite measurements and upper-ocean heating rate from in situ measurements, and this inconsistency has been interpreted as 'missing energy' in the system 2. Here we present a revised analysis of net radiation at the top of the(More)
This paper examines the effects of the relationship between cirrus cloud ice water content and cloud temperature on climate change. A simple mechanistic climate model is used to study the feedback between ice water content and temperature. The central question studied in this paper concerns the extent to which both the radiative and microphysical properties(More)
691 E arth's climate is determined by the flows of energy into and out of the planet and to and from Earth's surface. Geographical distributions of these energy flows at the surface are particularly important as they drive ocean circulations, fuel the evaporation of water from Earth's surface and govern the planetary hydrological cycle. Changes to the(More)
In late April 2006, NASA launched Cloudsat, an earth-observing satellite that uses a near-nadir-pointing millimeter-wavelength radar to probe the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. The first step in using Cloudsat measurements is to distinguish clouds and other hydrometeors from radar noise. In this article the operational Cloudsat hydrometeor(More)
From the analysis of surface, upper-air, and satellite observations it is suggested that the hydrological cycle associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation acts in the mode of a self-regulating oscillator. The regulation occurs as a feedback between hydrological processes in the atmosphere; radiation processes; and the dynamical movement of air over the(More)
Aerosols are known to have both direct and indirect effects on clouds through their role as cloud condensation nuclei. This study examines the effects of differing aerosol concentrations on convective storms developing under different environments. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a cloud-resolving model with sophisticated microphysical and(More)
This paper presents a critical review of a number of popular methods that have been developed to retrieve cloud and precipitation properties from satellite radiance measurements. The emphasis of the paper is on the retrieval uncertainties associated with these methods, as these shape future data assimilation applications, either in the form of direct(More)