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Prediction of small molecule binding modes to macromolecules of known three-dimensional structure is a problem of paramount importance in rational drug design (the "docking" problem). We report the development and validation of the program GOLD (Genetic Optimisation for Ligand Docking). GOLD is an automated ligand docking program that uses a genetic(More)
Understanding the principles whereby macromolecular biological receptors can recognise small molecule substrates or inhibitors is the subject of a major effort. This is of paramount importance in rational drug design where the receptor structure is known (the "docking" problem). Current theoretical approaches utilise models of the steric and electrostatic(More)
Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the global burden of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) as part of the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study and to explore how the burden of hip and knee OA compares with other conditions. METHODS Systematic reviews were conducted to source age-specific and sex-specific epidemiological data for hip and knee OA prevalence, incidence and(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) metabolites of vitamin A are key regulators of gene expression involved in embryonic development and maintenance of epithelial tissues. The cellular effects of RA are dependent upon the complement of nuclear receptors expressed (RARs and RXRs), which transduce retinoid signals into transcriptional regulation, the presence of cellular(More)
Two factors secreted from the nerve terminal, agrin and neuregulin, have been postulated to induce localization of the acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) to the subsynaptic membrane in skeletal muscle fibers. The principal function ascribed to neuregulin is induction of AChR subunit gene expression and to agrin is the aggregation of AChRs. Here we report that(More)
Quantitative ultrasound of the heel captures heel bone properties that independently predict fracture risk and, with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by X-ray (DXA), may be convenient alternatives for evaluating osteoporosis and fracture risk. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to assess the genetic determinants of heel(More)
We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT) and bone mineral density (BMD) by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide(More)
The important reactions that occur to the vitamin D molecule and the important reactions involved in the expression of the final active form of vitamin D are reviewed in a critical manner. After an overview of the metabolism of vitamin D to its active form and to its metabolic degradation products, the molecular understanding of the 1alpha-hydroxylation(More)
Retinoids, including all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and its stereoisomer 9-cis-RA play important roles in regulating gene expression, through interactions with nuclear receptors, during embryonic development and in the maintenance of adult epithelial tissues (Chambon, P. (1995) Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 50, 317-32; Mangelsdorf, D. J., and Evans, R. M. (1995) Cell(More)