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Prediction of small molecule binding modes to macromolecules of known three-dimensional structure is a problem of paramount importance in rational drug design (the "docking" problem). We report the development and validation of the program GOLD (Genetic Optimisation for Ligand Docking). GOLD is an automated ligand docking program that uses a genetic(More)
Understanding the principles whereby macromolecular biological receptors can recognise small molecule substrates or inhibitors is the subject of a major effort. This is of paramount importance in rational drug design where the receptor structure is known (the "docking" problem). Current theoretical approaches utilise models of the steric and electrostatic(More)
The important reactions that occur to the vitamin D molecule and the important reactions involved in the expression of the final active form of vitamin D are reviewed in a critical manner. After an overview of the metabolism of vitamin D to its active form and to its metabolic degradation products, the molecular understanding of the 1alpha-hydroxylation(More)
Bats that capture animal prey from substrates often emit characteristic echolocation calls that are short-duration, frequency-modulated (FM) and broadband. Such calls seem to be suited to locating prey in uncluttered habitats, including flying prey, but may be less effective for finding prey among cluttered backgrounds because echoes reflecting from the(More)
Retinoids, including all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and its stereoisomer 9-cis-RA play important roles in regulating gene expression, through interactions with nuclear receptors, during embryonic development and in the maintenance of adult epithelial tissues (Chambon, P. (1995) Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 50, 317-32; Mangelsdorf, D. J., and Evans, R. M. (1995) Cell(More)
BACKGROUND This article is facilitated by the Australian Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG) editorial base. The CMSG is one of the largest Cochrane review groups and produces reliable, up-to-date systematic reviews of interventions for the prevention, treatment or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders. OBJECTIVE Our aim is to place the findings(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) metabolites of vitamin A are key regulators of gene expression involved in embryonic development and maintenance of epithelial tissues. The cellular effects of RA are dependent upon the complement of nuclear receptors expressed (RARs and RXRs), which transduce retinoid signals into transcriptional regulation, the presence of cellular(More)
Osteoporotic fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a major predisposing factor to fracture and is known to be highly heritable. Site-, gender-, and age-specific genetic effects on BMD are thought to be significant, but have largely not been considered in the design of genome-wide association(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine prospectively the rates of change in bone mineral density in elderly people and to examine the relation between lifestyle and demographic factors and these rates of change. DESIGN Longitudinal population based study. SETTING Dubbo, New South Wales, Australia. SUBJECTS Representative sample (n = 769) of residents aged > or = 60(More)
In skeletal muscle fibers, neural agrin can direct the accumulation of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) and transcription of AChR subunit genes from the subsynaptic nuclei. Although the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK is required for AChR clustering, it is less clear whether MuSK regulates gene transcription. To elucidate the role of MuSK in these processes, we(More)