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Patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced gene expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 72, which correlates with reduced insulin sensitivity. Heat therapy, which activates HSP72, improves clinical parameters in these patients. Activation of several inflammatory signaling proteins such as c-jun amino terminal kinase (JNK), inhibitor of kappaB kinase, and(More)
The heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of intracellular proteins found in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Their functions are well characterized and are central to maintaining cellular homeostasis and in promoting cell survival in response to stressful cellular conditions. However, several studies provide evidence that specific members of the HSP(More)
OBJECTIVE Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in diabetic vasculature is considered to be a key mediator of atherogenesis. This study examines the effects of deletion of RAGE on the development of atherosclerosis in the diabetic apoE(-/-) model of accelerated atherosclerosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS ApoE(-/-) and(More)
Follistatin is essential for skeletal muscle development and growth, but the intracellular signaling networks that regulate follistatin-mediated effects are not well defined. We show here that the administration of an adeno-associated viral vector expressing follistatin-288aa (rAAV6:Fst-288) markedly increased muscle mass and force-producing capacity(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS While it is well known that diet-induced obesity causes insulin resistance, the precise mechanisms underpinning the initiation of insulin resistance are unclear. To determine factors that may cause insulin resistance, we have performed a detailed time-course study in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS C57Bl/6 mice were fed chow or an(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a member of the gp130 receptor cytokine family recently identified as an antiobesity agent in rodents and humans by mechanisms that remain unclear. We investigated the impact of acute CNTF treatment on insulin action in the presence of lipid oversupply. To avoid confounding effects of long-term high-fat feeding or(More)
The purpose of the current research was to test the hypothesis that exercise induced leukocyte heat shock protein (HSP) expression is increased during periods of intensified exercise training. Seven male endurance cyclists carried out tests of maximal oxygen consumption and endurance capacity. These standard exercise tests were carried out prior to and(More)
PURPOSE Regulation of skeletal muscle mass is highly dependent on contractile loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in growth factor and inflammatory pathways following high-frequency resistance training. METHODS Using a novel design in which male Sprague-Dawley rats undertook a "stacked" resistance training protocol designed to(More)
Eleven mammalian toll-like receptors (TLRs 1-11) have been identified to date and are known to play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses; however, the factors that regulate TLR expression and function in vivo are poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the physiological regulation of TLR expression and function in(More)
The heat shock proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins with critical roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and in protecting the cell from stressful conditions. While the critical intracellular roles of heat shock proteins are undisputed, evidence suggests that the cell possess the necessary machinery to actively secrete specific heat shock(More)