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With an aging population, skeletal fractures are increasing in incidence, including the typical closed and the less common open fractures in normal bone, as well as fragility fractures in patients with osteoporosis. For the older age group, there is an urgent unmet need to induce predictable bone formation as well as improve implant fixation in situations(More)
BACKGROUND Lower limb fractures with vascular injuries are associated with a high rate of secondary amputation. Reducing ischaemic time is vital for limb salvage. However, the optimal sequence of surgical management remains unclear. We aimed to review the literature to establish an evidence-based management algorithm. METHODS All identifiable English(More)
Spontaneous idiopathic facial nerve (Bell's) palsy leaves residual hemifacial weakness in 29% which is severe and disfiguring in over half of these cases. Acute medical management remains the best way to improve outcomes. Reconstructive surgery can improve long term disfigurement. However, acute and surgical options are time-dependent. As family(More)
BACKGROUND Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a technique that has gained such rapid acceptance for such a diversity of wound management problems that the evidence for optimal use has struggled to keep up. While clinical studies have sought to evaluate its effectiveness for a variety of acute and chronic wounds, preclinical studies have suggested(More)
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been used therapeutically for the treatment of spastic disorders for many years. More recently, the therapeutic utility of BTX-A in the treatment of hyperhidrosis has been recognised. While studies have reported on the efficacy of BTX-A in managing hyperhidrosis, long term data are required in order for the treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) promotes angiogenesis and granulation, in part by strain-induced production of growth factors and cytokines. As their expression profiles are being unravelled, it is pertinent to consider the mode of action of NPWT at the molecular level. METHODS MEDLINE (January 1997 to present), Embase (January 1997 to(More)
BACKGROUND Reconstruction following pharyngolaryngectomy presents a complex reconstructive challenge, and a single-stage, reliable reconstruction allowing prompt discharge from the hospital and return of swallowing and speech function is required. The authors present their 10-year experience of 43 jejunal free flaps for pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction(More)
The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements in other fields of elective surgery and its use is emerging in a number of plastic surgical subspecialties. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the current evidence for the efficacy and safety of TXA in craniomaxillofacial, head(More)
BACKGROUND Haematomas compromise flaps in the absence of a pressure effect and pedicle thrombosis. While animal models confirmed the toxic effect of whole blood on adjacently sited random pattern flaps, our understanding of this phenomenon remains incomplete. Our aim was to identify mechanisms by which a subjacent haematoma leads to flap compromise to(More)
A leading edge 90 nm technology with 1.2 nm physical gate oxide, 50 nm gate length, strained silicon, NiSi, 7 layers of Cu interconnects, and low k CDO for high performance dense logic is presented. Strained silicon is used to increase saturated NMOS and PMOS drive currents by 10-20% and mobility by > 50%. Aggressive design rules and unlanded contacts offer(More)