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We present a self-organizing model of group formation in three-dimensional space, and use it to investigate the spatial dynamics of animal groups such as fish schools and bird flocks. We reveal the existence of major group-level behavioural transitions related to minor changes in individual-level interactions. Further, we present the first evidence for(More)
We study the evolution of dispersal rates in a two patch metapopulation model. The local dynamics in each patch are given by difference equations, which, together with the rate of dispersal between the patches, determine the ecological dynamics of the metapopulation. We assume that phenotypes are given by their dispersal rate. The evolutionary dynamics in(More)
Experiments with wild birds feeding on pastry 'prey' were performed to test competing theories of Müllerian mimicry Conventional theories predict that all resemblances between defended prey will be mutually advantageous and, hence, Müllerian. In contrast, unconventional theories predict that, if there are inequalities in defences between mimetic species,(More)
BACKGROUND Camouflage patterns that hinder detection and/or recognition by antagonists are widely studied in both human and animal contexts. Patterns of contrasting stripes that purportedly degrade an observer's ability to judge the speed and direction of moving prey ('motion dazzle') are, however, rarely investigated. This is despite motion dazzle having(More)
We extend the game theoretic model of kleptoparasitism introduced by Broom and Ruxton (1998, Behav. Ecol. 9, 397-403) in two ways: we allow for asymmetric contests, where the probability alpha of the challenger winning can take any value from 0 to 1; and we allow the handler to choose not to resist the challenge, but to immediately concede and relinquish(More)
Observations were made on three fish species (banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)) in a temperate lake (New Brunswick, Canada) in order to investigate the relationship between shoal choice behaviour of individual fishes and shoal composition. Encounters between shoals were(More)
Electronic media have unlocked a hitherto largely untapped potential for swarm intelligence (SI; generally, the realisation that group living can facilitate solving cognitive problems that go beyond the capacity of single animals) in humans with relevance for areas such as company management, prediction of elections, product development and the(More)
Many prey species use colourful 'aposematic' signalling to advertise the fact that they are toxic. Some recent studies have shown that the brightness of aposematic displays correlates positively with the strength of toxicity, suggesting that aposematic displays are a form of handicap signal, the conspicuousness of which reliably indicates the level of(More)
Acquiring information from the cues and signals of other species of the same trophic level is widespread among animals, and can help individuals exploit resources and avoid predators. But can such interspecific information transfer also influence the spatial structure of species within communities? Whereas some species use heterospecific information without(More)
Many animals are toxic or unpalatable and signal this to predators with warning signals (aposematism). Aposematic appearance has long been a classical system to study predator-prey interactions, communication and signalling, and animal behaviour and learning. The area has received considerable empirical and theoretical investigation. However, most research(More)