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We present a self-organizing model of group formation in three-dimensional space, and use it to investigate the spatial dynamics of animal groups such as fish schools and bird flocks. We reveal the existence of major group-level behavioural transitions related to minor changes in individual-level interactions. Further, we present the first evidence for(More)
We study the evolution of dispersal rates in a two patch metapopulation model. The local dynamics in each patch are given by difference equations, which, together with the rate of dispersal between the patches, determine the ecological dynamics of the metapopulation. We assume that phenotypes are given by their dispersal rate. The evolutionary dynamics in(More)
Acquiring information from the cues and signals of other species of the same trophic level is widespread among animals, and can help individuals exploit resources and avoid predators. But can such interspecific information transfer also influence the spatial structure of species within communities? Whereas some species use heterospecific information without(More)
Experiments with wild birds feeding on pastry 'prey' were performed to test competing theories of Müllerian mimicry Conventional theories predict that all resemblances between defended prey will be mutually advantageous and, hence, Müllerian. In contrast, unconventional theories predict that, if there are inequalities in defences between mimetic species,(More)
BACKGROUND Camouflage patterns that hinder detection and/or recognition by antagonists are widely studied in both human and animal contexts. Patterns of contrasting stripes that purportedly degrade an observer's ability to judge the speed and direction of moving prey ('motion dazzle') are, however, rarely investigated. This is despite motion dazzle having(More)
We extend the game theoretic model of kleptoparasitism introduced by Broom and Ruxton (1998, Behav. Ecol. 9, 397-403) in two ways: we allow for asymmetric contests, where the probability alpha of the challenger winning can take any value from 0 to 1; and we allow the handler to choose not to resist the challenge, but to immediately concede and relinquish(More)
Aggression is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, whenever the interests of individuals conflict. In contests between animals, the larger opponent is often victorious. However, counter intuitively, an individual that has little chance of winning (generally smaller individuals) sometimes initiates contests. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to(More)
Observations were made on three fish species (banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)) in a temperate lake (New Brunswick, Canada) in order to investigate the relationship between shoal choice behaviour of individual fishes and shoal composition. Encounters between shoals were(More)
Body size and metabolic rate both fundamentally constrain how species interact with their environment, and hence ultimately affect their niche. While many mechanisms leading to these constraints have been explored, their effects on the resolution at which temporal information is perceived have been largely overlooked. The visual system acts as a gateway to(More)
Electronic media have unlocked a hitherto largely untapped potential for swarm intelligence (SI; generally, the realisation that group living can facilitate solving cognitive problems that go beyond the capacity of single animals) in humans with relevance for areas such as company management, prediction of elections, product development and the(More)