Graeme Cowan

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Restriction-modification systems can protect bacteria against viral infection. Sequences of the hsdM gene, encoding one of the three subunits of type I restriction-modification systems, have been determined for four strains of enterobacteria. Comparison with the known sequences of EcoK and EcoR124 indicates that all are homologous, though they fall into(More)
Pneumolysin is an important virulence factor of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Sequence analysis of the ply gene from 121 clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae uncovered a number of alleles. Twenty-two strains were chosen for further analysis, and 14 protein alleles were discovered. Five of these had been reported previously, and the remaining 9(More)
Anthrolysin O (ALO) is a toxin produced by Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. It is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) group of toxins, many of which are potential vaccine candidates that protect against their producing organisms. Pore formation by ALO was studied by transmission electron microscopy and pores were found(More)
The genes (hsd A) encoding EcoA, a restriction and modification system first identified in Escherichia coli 15T-, behave in genetic crosses as alleles of the genes (hsd K) encoding the archetypal type I restriction and modification system of E. coli K12. Nevertheless, molecular experiments have failed to detect relatedness between the A and K systems. We(More)
Plasmodium sporozoites collected from oocysts, haemocoel and salivary glands of the mosquito show profound differences in their biological properties such as motility, ability to induce protective immune response and infectivity for vertebrate host cells. Sporozoites from salivary glands are much more infectious than those from oocysts and haemocoel.(More)
Intermedilysin is a pore-forming cytolysin belonging to the streptolysin O gene family known as the 'Cholesterol-binding/dependent cytolysins' and is unique within the family in that it is highly humanspecific. This specificity suggests interaction with a component of human cells other than cholesterol, the proposed receptor for the other toxins of the gene(More)
With the current paucity of vaccine targets for parasitic diseases, particularly those in childhood, the aim of this study was to compare protein expression and immune cross-reactivity between the trematodes Schistosoma haematobium, S. bovis and Echinostoma caproni in the hope of identifying novel intervention targets. Native adult parasite proteins were(More)
Induction of immunity at mucosal surfaces is thought to be an essential feature in the protection of the host against the many pathogens that gain access through these surfaces. Here we describe how strong local and systemic immune responses can be generated when proteins are genetically conjugated to pneumolysin (PLY) from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Using(More)
One polypeptide, designated S, confers sequence-specificity to the multisubunit type I restriction enzymes. Two families of such enzymes, K and A, include members that recognize diverse, bipartite, target sequences. The S polypeptides of the K family, while having areas of near identity, also contain two extensive regions of variable sequence. We now show(More)
Polymorphic parasite antigens are known targets of protective immunity to malaria, but this antigenic variation poses challenges to vaccine development. A synthetic MSP-1 Block 2 construct, based on all polymorphic variants found in natural Plasmodium falciparum isolates has been designed, combined with the relatively conserved Block 1 sequence of MSP-1 and(More)