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The problems encountered by students in first year computer programming units are a common concern in many universities including Victoria University. A fundamental component of a computer science curriculum, computer programming is a mandatory unit in a computing course. It is also one of the most feared and hated units by many novice computing students(More)
The way in which novice programmers learn to write code is of considerable interest to computing education researchers. One research approach to understanding how beginners acquire their programming abilities has been to look at student performance in exams. Lopez et al. (2008) analyzed student responses to an end-of-first-semester exam. They found two(More)
This paper describes a method of integrating remotely sensed data (the MODIS LAI product) with an ecosystem model (the spatial EPIC model) to estimate crop yield in North China. The traditional productivity simulations based on crop models are normally site-specific. To simulate regional crop productivity, the spatial crop model is developed firstly in this(More)
Executive Summary In a Finnish study of four different academic disciplines, Ylijoki (2000) found that in Computer Science there was a disparity between the conceptions held by undergraduate students and staff about their discipline; students viewed it as being far more pragmatic and results focused than did their instructors. Not surprisingly, here at our(More)
Executive Summary Genetic algorithms (GAs) are a problem solving strategy that uses stochastic search. Since their introduction (Holland, 1975), GAs have proven to be particularly useful for solving problems that are 'intractable' using classical methods. The language of genetic algorithms (GAs) is heavily laced with biological metaphors from evolutionary(More)
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) offer advantages as model animals for studies of inner ear development, genetics and ototoxicity. However, traditional assessment of vestibular function in this species using the vestibulo-ocular reflex requires agar-immobilization of individual fish and specialized video, which are difficult and labor-intensive. We report that using(More)
Although respiratory tract infections can be a common complication in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), there is little published data on the nature of such infections in this patient group. We wished to investigate whether sputum samples were being taken from PD patients in order to establish whether an infection was present and if so which bacteria(More)