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Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that is associated with diverse types of local and systemic infection characterized by inflammation dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Staphylococci frequently cause pneumonia, and these clinical isolates often have increased expression of protein A, suggesting that this protein may have a role in(More)
Many respiratory pathogens, including Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, express neuraminidases that can cleave alpha2,3-linked sialic acids from glycoconjugates. As mucosal surfaces are heavily sialylated, neuraminidases have been thought to modify epithelial cells by exposing potential bacterial receptors.(More)
The activation of type I IFN signaling is a major component of host defense against viral infection, but it is not typically associated with immune responses to extracellular bacterial pathogens. Using mouse and human airway epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that Staphylococcus aureus activates type I IFN signaling, which contributes to its virulence(More)
Polymorphonuclear leukocyte-dominated airway inflammation is a major component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and may be associated with CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction as well as infection. Mutant DeltaF508 CFTR is mistrafficked, accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and may cause "cell stress" and activation of(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate cellular responses to diverse microbial ligands. The distribution and function of TLRs in airway cells were studied to identify which are available to signal the presence of inhaled pathogens and to establish if differences in TLR expression are associated with the increased proinflammatory responses seen in cystic(More)
The distribution of specific toll-like receptors and components of the signaling pathways activated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagella were studied in airway epithelial cells. Initially flagella bound to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, where they prominently colocalized with asialoGM1. By 4 h of exposure to flagella, toll-like receptor(More)
Airway epithelial cells have a major role in initiating inflammation in response to bacterial pathogens. Through the immediate induction of CXCL8 and cytokine expression, polymorphonuclear cells are mobilized and activated to eradicate the infecting organisms. However, the influx of polymorphonuclear cells and the effects of their toxic exoproducts impede(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate host responses to bacterial gene products. As the airway epithelium is potentially exposed to many diverse inhaled bacteria, TLRs involved in defense of the airways must be broadly responsive, available at the exposed apical surface of the cells, and highly regulated to prevent activation following trivial encounters with(More)
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multiple-antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogen that is being isolated with increasing frequency from patients with health-care-associated infections and especially from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While clinicians feel compelled to treat infections involving this organism, its potential for virulence is not(More)
There is considerable interest in the use of azithromycin for the treatment of lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although its mechanism of action as an inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis has been well-established, it is less clear how azithromycin ameliorates the lung disease associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is(More)