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The distribution of specific toll-like receptors and components of the signaling pathways activated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagella were studied in airway epithelial cells. Initially flagella bound to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, where they prominently colocalized with asialoGM1. By 4 h of exposure to flagella, toll-like receptor(More)
The tremendous success of S. aureus as a human pathogen has been explained primarily by its array of virulence factors that enable the organism to evade host immunity. Perhaps equally important, but less well understood, is the importance of the intensity of the host response in determining the extent of pathology induced by S. aureus infection,(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate cellular responses to diverse microbial ligands. The distribution and function of TLRs in airway cells were studied to identify which are available to signal the presence of inhaled pathogens and to establish if differences in TLR expression are associated with the increased proinflammatory responses seen in cystic(More)
The activation of type I IFN signaling is a major component of host defense against viral infection, but it is not typically associated with immune responses to extracellular bacterial pathogens. Using mouse and human airway epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that Staphylococcus aureus activates type I IFN signaling, which contributes to its virulence(More)
Airway epithelial cells provide an immediate response to bacterial pathogens by producing chemokines and cytokines that recruit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the site of infection. This response is excessive in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) who have bacterial contamination of their airways. We postulated that CF airway pathogens, in activating(More)
UNLABELLED The mucosal epithelium is the initial target for respiratory pathogens of all types. While type I interferon (IFN) signaling is traditionally associated with antiviral immunity, we demonstrate that the extracellular bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae activates the type I IFN cascade in airway epithelial and dendritic cells. This response(More)
UNLABELLED Skin is the most common site of Staphylococcus aureus infection. While most of these infections are self-limited, recurrent infections are common. Keratinocytes and recruited immune cells participate in skin defense against infection. We postulated that S. aureus is able to adapt to the milieu within human keratinocytes to avoid(More)
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