Grace Regina Kunkel

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The US National Honey Bee Disease Survey sampled colony pests and diseases from 2009 to 2014. We verified the absence of Tropilaelaps spp., the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), and slow bee paralysis virus. Endemic health threats were quantified, including Varroa destructor, Nosema spp., and eight honey bee viruses. Varroa loads varied across years, with(More)
Title of Thesis: IN VITRO MEASURES OF MDRTRANSPORTER FUNCTION AND WHOLE-HIVE EXPOSURE DYNAMICS USING FLUORESCENT DYES Grace Regina Kunkel, Master of Science, 2014 Thesis Directed By: Associate Professor, David Hawthorne, Department of Entomology We need to study Apis mellifera both in vivo and ex vivo to better understand honey bee biology. In vivo(More)
Pest insects damage crops, transmit diseases, and are household nuisances. Historically, they have been controlled with insecticides, but overuse often leads to resistance to one or more of these chemicals. Insects gain resistance to insecticides through behavioral, metabolic, genetic, and physical mechanisms. One frequently overlooked strategy is through(More)
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