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Foveal detection of a Gabor patch (target) is facilitated by collinear, displaced high-contrast flankers. Polat and Sagi reported that the same phenomenon occurred in the periphery, but no data were presented [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91 (1994) 1206]. Others have found no facilitation in a limited number of conditions tested. To resolve this apparent(More)
Many respiratory pathogens, including Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, express neuraminidases that can cleave alpha2,3-linked sialic acids from glycoconjugates. As mucosal surfaces are heavily sialylated, neuraminidases have been thought to modify epithelial cells by exposing potential bacterial receptors.(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate cellular responses to diverse microbial ligands. The distribution and function of TLRs in airway cells were studied to identify which are available to signal the presence of inhaled pathogens and to establish if differences in TLR expression are associated with the increased proinflammatory responses seen in cystic(More)
The distribution of specific toll-like receptors and components of the signaling pathways activated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagella were studied in airway epithelial cells. Initially flagella bound to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, where they prominently colocalized with asialoGM1. By 4 h of exposure to flagella, toll-like receptor(More)
The activation of type I IFN signaling is a major component of host defense against viral infection, but it is not typically associated with immune responses to extracellular bacterial pathogens. Using mouse and human airway epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that Staphylococcus aureus activates type I IFN signaling, which contributes to its virulence(More)
Airway epithelial cells provide an immediate response to bacterial pathogens by producing chemokines and cytokines that recruit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the site of infection. This response is excessive in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) who have bacterial contamination of their airways. We postulated that CF airway pathogens, in activating(More)
UNLABELLED The mucosal epithelium is the initial target for respiratory pathogens of all types. While type I interferon (IFN) signaling is traditionally associated with antiviral immunity, we demonstrate that the extracellular bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae activates the type I IFN cascade in airway epithelial and dendritic cells. This response(More)
Staphylococcus aureus strains lacking agr- and sarA-dependent gene products or specific MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) adhesins were compared for the ability to activate inflammatory responses in the lung. The mutants were evaluated for virulence in a mouse model of pneumonia and by quantifying their ability to(More)
The tremendous success of S. aureus as a human pathogen has been explained primarily by its array of virulence factors that enable the organism to evade host immunity. Perhaps equally important, but less well understood, is the importance of the intensity of the host response in determining the extent of pathology induced by S. aureus infection,(More)
UNLABELLED Skin is the most common site of Staphylococcus aureus infection. While most of these infections are self-limited, recurrent infections are common. Keratinocytes and recruited immune cells participate in skin defense against infection. We postulated that S. aureus is able to adapt to the milieu within human keratinocytes to avoid(More)