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The auditory system operates over a vast range of sound pressure levels (100-120 dB) with nearly constant discrimination ability across most of the range, well exceeding the dynamic range of most auditory neurons (20-40 dB). Dean et al. (2005) have reported that the dynamic range of midbrain auditory neurons adapts to the distribution of sound levels in a(More)
Auditory adaptation to sound-level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, which is characterized by a shift of the rate-level function or(More)
The Weber–Fechner law states that perceived intensity is proportional to physical stimuli on a logarithmic scale. In this work, we formulate a Bayesian framework for the scaling of perception and find logarithmic and related scalings are optimal under expected relative error fidelity. Therefore, the Weber–Fechner law arises as being information(More)
The present study used conventional and quantitative microdialysis to assess glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in the hippocampal CA3 area of the rat following a moderate-dose ethanol treatment regimen. Male Wistar rats received 3.4 g/kg of ethanol or water for 6 days via gastric gavage. Microdialysis experiments commenced 2 days later. Basal(More)
The spatio-temporal pattern of auditory nerve (AN) activity, representing the relative timing of spikes across the tonotopic axis, contains cues to perceptual features of sounds such as pitch, loudness, timbre, and spatial location. These spatio-temporal cues may be extracted by neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN) that are sensitive to relative timing of(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research has found relationships between specific indoor environmental exposures and exacerbation of asthma. OBJECTIVES In this review we provide an updated summary of knowledge from the scientific literature on indoor exposures and exacerbation of asthma. METHODS Peer-reviewed articles published from 2000 to 2013 on indoor exposures(More)
INTRODUCTION Bilateral upper extremity ischemia is an unusual presentation of vascular disease. Aetiologies include atherosclerosis as well as rheumatologic diseases. History and physical examination are often, but not always, enough to distinguish between aetiologies and guide treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a female patient with(More)
Changes in animal movement (frequency or speed of locomotion) following exposure to a toxicant are frequently considered a biomarker of contaminant exposure and are some of the most widely reported behavioral results in toxicological literature. However, the ecological consequences of such behavioral changes, such as effects on toxicant transfer in(More)
9 10 The spatio-temporal pattern of auditory-nerve (AN) activity, representing the relative timing of spikes 11 across the tonotopic axis, contains cues to perceptual features of sounds such as pitch, loudness, timbre, 12 and spatial location. These spatio-temporal cues may be extracted by neurons in the cochlear nucleus 13 (CN) that are sensitive to the(More)
Auditory adaptation to sound level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the 11 first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a 12 rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, 13 which is characterized by a shift of the rate-level(More)