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Much attention has been paid to nitric oxide (NO) research since its discovery as a physiological mediator of plant defence responses. In recent years, newer roles have been attributed to NO, ranging from root development to stomatal closure. The molecular mechanisms underlying NO action in plants are just begun to emerge. The currently available data(More)
The SnRK2 family members are plant-specific serine/threonine kinases involved in plant response to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent plant development. SnRK2s have been classed into three groups; group 1 comprises kinases not activated by ABA, group 2 comprises kinases not activated or activated very weakly by ABA, and group 3 comprises(More)
In tobacco cells, osmotic stress induced the rapid activation of two protein kinases that phosphorylate myelin basic protein. Immunological studies demonstrated that the 48-kD kinase is the salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. SIPK was activated 5 to 10 min after the cells were exposed to(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) is a dual specificity protein kinase that exhibits a high degree of specificity toward its downstream target, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In this study, we used stable overexpression of MAPKK and its mutants in NIH 3T3 cells to study effects on downstream components of the MAPK signaling cascade(More)
A calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase of apparent molecular mass 54 kDa (designated ZmCPKp54) was partially purified from etiolated maize seedlings. Activity of ZmCPKp54 is stimulated by phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol, but is not essentially affected by diolein and phorbol esters. The enzyme cross-reacts with polyclonal(More)
Several studies focusing on elucidating the mechanism of NO (nitric oxide) signalling in plant cells have highlighted that its biological effects are partly mediated by protein kinases. The identity of these kinases and details of how NO modulates their activities, however, remain poorly investigated. In the present study, we have attempted to clarify the(More)
SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s) are plant-specific enzymes involved in environmental stress signaling and abscisic acid-regulated plant development. Here, we report that SnRK2s interact with and are regulated by a plant-specific calcium-binding protein. We screened a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Matchmaker cDNA library for proteins interacting with(More)
Cadmium ions are notorious environmental pollutants. To adapt to cadmium-induced deleterious effects plants have developed sophisticated defense mechanisms. However, the signaling pathways underlying the plant response to cadmium are still elusive. Our data demonstrate that SnRK2s (for SNF1-related protein kinase2) are transiently activated during cadmium(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a diatomic gas that performs crucial functions in a wide array of physiological processes in animals. The past several years have revealed much about its roles in plants. It is well established that NO is synthesized from nitrite by nitrate reductase (NR) and via chemical pathways. There is increasing evidence for the occurrence of an(More)
Using protein sequence data obtained from a calcium- and phospholipid-regulated protein kinase purified from maize (Zea mays), we isolated a cDNA encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK), which we designated ZmCPK11. The deduced amino acid sequence of ZmCPK11 includes the sequences of all the peptides obtained from the native protein. The ZmCPK11(More)