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A blind volunteer with retinitis pigmentosa was chronically implanted with a self-sizing spiral cuff electrode around an optic nerve. Electrical stimuli applied to the nerve produced localized visual sensations that were broadly distributed throughout the visual field and could be varied by changing the stimulating conditions. These results demonstrate the(More)
PURPOSE To explore electrically induced phosphenes in blind patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in comparison with healthy subjects and to develop a screening test for candidates for an optic nerve visual prosthesis implantation. METHODS Phosphenes are obtained by charge balanced biphasic pulse stimulations through a surface cathode over the closed(More)
BACKGROUND Polarised trafficking of proteins is critical for normal expression of the epithelial phenotype, but its genetic control is not understood. The regulatory gene lin-26 is essential for normal epithelial differentiation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify potential effectors of lin-26, we characterised mutations that result in(More)
Few studies have investigated whether or not there is an interdependence between osmoregulation and vesicular trafficking. We previously showed that in Caenorhabditis elegans che-14 mutations affect osmoregulation, cuticle secretion, and sensory organ development. We report the identification of seven lethal mutations displaying che-14-like phenotypes,(More)
How epithelial cell fates become specified is poorly understood. We have previously shown that the putative C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor LIN-26 is required for the differentiation of ectodermal and mesodermal epithelial cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we report that ectopic LIN-26 expression during early gastrulation transforms most(More)
The microsystems based visual prosthesis (MiViP) visual prosthesis generates visual perceptions well below safety and stimulator saturation limits. These perceptions, called phosphenes, are of reasonably small size and are broadly distributed in the visual field. They can thus be used to convey useful visual information. Psychophysical evaluations are being(More)
Clathrin provides an external scaffold to form small 50-100-nm transport vesicles. In contrast, formation of much larger dense-cored secretory granules is driven by selective aggregation of internal cargo at the trans-Golgi network; the only known role of clathrin in dense-cored secretory granules formation is to remove missorted proteins by small, coated(More)
The rapid exocytosis of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in response to vascular injury can be attributed to the fact that VWF is stored in the Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) of endothelial cells. We describe a system for examining the ability of VWF to drive both the formation of a storage compartment and the function of that compartment with respect to regulated(More)
During asymmetric cell division, the mitotic spindle and polarized myosin can both determine the position of the cytokinetic furrow. However, how cells coordinate signals from the spindle and myosin to ensure that cleavage occurs through the spindle midzone is unknown. Here, we identify a novel pathway that is essential to inhibit myosin and coordinate(More)