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From a comparative viewpoint, we have investigated the presence and neuroanatomical distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive material in the brain of a gymnophione amphibian, Ichthyophis beddomei. Immunocytochemical analysis of the adult brain and terminal nerves in both sexes shows the presence of neurons and fibers containing(More)
High resolution LC/MS-MS and LC/APPI-MS methods have been established for the quantitation of flux in the turnover of cholesterol and cholesterol ester. Attention was directed toward quantifying the monoisotopic mass (M0) and that of the singly deuterated labeled (M+1) isotope. A good degree of isotopic dynamic range has been achieved by LC/MS-MS ranging(More)
The advantages of using (2)H(2)O to quantify cholesterol synthesis include i) homogeneous precursor labeling, ii) incorporation of (2)H via multiple pathways, and iii) the ability to perform long-term studies in free-living subjects. However, there are two concerns. First, the t(1/2) of tracer in body water presents a challenge when there is a need to(More)
The liver is a crossroad for metabolism of lipid and carbohydrates, with acetyl-CoA serving as an important metabolic intermediate and a precursor for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways. A better understanding of the regulation of these pathways requires an experimental approach that provides both quantitative metabolic flux measurements and(More)
The use of stable isotopically labeled substrates and analysis by mass spectrometry have provided substantial insight into rates of synthesis, disposition, and utilization of lipids in vivo. The information to be gained from such studies is of particular benefit to therapeutic research where the underlying causes of disease may be related to the production(More)
Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps are considered the "gold standard" for assessing whole body insulin sensitivity. When used in combination with tracer dilution techniques and physiological insulin concentrations, insulin sensitization can be dissected and attributed to hepatic and peripheral (primarily muscle) effects. Non-human primates (NHPs), such as(More)
Exceptionally well-preserved organic remains of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) were preserved in marine sediments that straddle the greatest extinction event in the Phanerozoic: the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Outcrops from the Late Permian Zewan Formation and the Early Triassic Khunamuh Formation are represented by a complete sedimentary sequence at the(More)
Kristian K. Jensen,* Stephen F. Previs,* Lei Zhu, Kithsiri Herath, Sheng-Ping Wang, Gowri Bhat, Guanghui Hu, Paul L. Miller, David G. McLaren, Myung K. Shin, Thomas F. Vogt, Liangsu Wang, Kenny K. Wong, Thomas P. Roddy, Douglas G. Johns, and Brian K. Hubbard Departments of Atherosclerosis, Exploratory and Translational Sciences, and Informatics and(More)
BACKGROUND SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) is a cholesterol binding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that is required to activate SREBP transcription factors. SREBPs regulate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. They also influence lipid clearance by modulating the expression of LDL receptor (LDLR) and proprotein convertase(More)
We demonstrate that one can measure low levels of ²H labeling (e.g., <0.025% excess ²H) by exchanging hydrogen (deuterium) in water with acetone and subjecting samples to gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. This analytical method circumvents the need to use typical off-line reduction methods that convert water to hydrogen gas prior(More)
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