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Repetitive DNA sequences, interspersed throughout the human genome, are capable of forming a wide variety of unusual DNA structures with simple and complex loopfolding patterns. The hairpin formed by the fragile X repeat, (CCG)n, and the bipartite triplex formed by the Friedreich's ataxia repeat, (GAA)n/(TTC)n, show simple loopfolding. On the other hand,… (More)
We postulated that a synergistic combination of two innate immune functions, pathogen surface recognition and lysis, in a protein chimera would lead to a robust class of engineered antimicrobial therapeutics for protection against pathogens. In support of our hypothesis, we have engineered such a chimera to protect against the gram-negative Xylella… (More)
The Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins (S.E.) A-I, and toxic-shock syndrome toxin TSST-1 act as superantigens to cause overstimulation of the host immune system, leading to the onset of various diseases including food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome. SAgs bind as intact proteins to the DRalpha1 domain of the MHC class II receptor and the TcRVbeta domain… (More)
We report here the complete genome sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (strain Guangxi-1). The 1,268,237-bp genome with a 36.5% G+C content comprises 1,141 open reading frames, 44 tRNAs, and 3 complete rRNAs in a circular chromosome.
This chapter summarizes our studies on the three toll-like receptor pathways, namely TLR4, TLR2, and TLR3, induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in antigen presenting cells (APC). The particular emphasis is on the activation of human innate immune responses via cytokine and chemokine production. Three… (More)
This article reports the design of a bivalent protein ligand with dual use in therapy and diagnosis of anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis. The ligand specifically binds to PA and thereby blocks the intracellular delivery of LF and EF toxins that, respectively, cause cell lysis and edema. The ligand is a chimeric scaffold with two PA-binding domains… (More)
Recognition of the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) by host Toll-like receptors (TLR) is an important component of the innate immune response for countering against invading viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Upon PAMP recognition, the TLR induces intracellular signaling cascades that involve adapter, signalosome, and transcription factor complexes… (More)
We report here the draft genome sequence of "Candidatus Liberibacter americanus" strain PW_SP. The 1,176,071-bp genome, with 31.6% G+C content, comprises 948 open reading frames, 38 tRNAs, and three complete rRNAs.
Staphylococcal enterotoxins SEB and SEC3 and toxic shock syndrome toxin TSST-1 act as superantigens by overstimulating the human immune system and thereby compromise host defense. The mechanism of pathogenesis is explained on the basis of superantigen binding to the MHC class II receptor on the antigen presenting cell and to the T cell receptor (TcR) on the… (More)
The third hypervariable region, or V3 loop, represents the principal neutralizing domain of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Sequential viral isolates from a laboratory worker (LW) accidentally infected with HIV-1IIIB in 1985 were analyzed using type-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed to the… (More)