Gordon Stanley Howarth

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Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 is a member of the S9b serine protease family, which also includes DPP8 and DPP9. DPP4 cleaves a number of regulatory factors, including chemokines and growth factors. DPP4 inhibitors have recently emerged as an effective treatment option for type 2 diabetes. Early in vitro studies demonstrated that DPP4 inhibitors inhibit(More)
Mucins possess potential binding sites for both commensal and pathogenic organisms and may perform a defensive role during establishment of the intestinal barrier. To observe the effects of bacteria on intestinal goblet cell mucin production during posthatch development, differences in the small intestine of conventionally reared (CR) and low bacterial load(More)
Currently, there are no truly effective therapies for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis, a debilitating side effect with a pathophysiology common to many chemotherapy regimens. We tested the efficacy of a growth factor extract derived from cheese whey against experimental intestinal mucositis in rats. Rats were subcutaneously(More)
Mucositis is a common side-effect of high-dose chemotherapy regimens. Grape seed extract (GSE) represents a rich source of proanthocyanidins with the potential to decrease oxidative damage and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated GSE for its capacity to decrease the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in vitro and in vivo. In(More)
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activates colonic splanchnic afferents, a mechanism by which it has been implicated in generating symptoms in postinfectious and postinflammatory states in humans. Here we compared mechanisms of colonic afferent activation by 5-HT and mechanical stimuli in normal and inflamed rat colon, and after recovery from inflammation.(More)
Although probiotics are beginning to enter mainstream medicine for disorders of the colon, their effects on the small bowel remain largely unexplored. We investigated the recently identified probiotic, Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) BR11 (BR11) and the prebiotic, fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), both individually and in synbiotic combination, for their(More)
Fatty acids (FA) are bioactive molecules which have potential as adjunctive chemotherapeutic agents. FA are classified as short-, medium; or long-chain on the basis of the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain and have been reported to induce apoptosis in vitro in a range of cancer cell types, including breast, tongue, cervix and colorectal.(More)
Grape seed extract (GSE) constitutes a rich source of procyanidins. GSE has been demonstrated to exert encouraging anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties in experimental settings, although its effects on inflammation of the colon remain undefined. To determine the effects of GSE in a rat model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) for ulcerative colitis.(More)
The dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis has been commonly utilized in mice to assess novel treatments for ulcerative colitis. Recent studies have indicated that morphological and biochemical changes extend to the small intestine (SI). This study aimed to characterize histological and biochemical changes in the SI during DSS colitis in wild-type(More)
Current treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are relatively ineffective. Recently, probiotics have emerged as a potential treatment modality for numerous gastrointestinal disorders, including IBD. Few probiotics, however, have undergone appropriate preclinical screening in vivo. The current study compared the effects of four candidate probiotics(More)