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Clear cell renal carcinomas (ccRCCs) can display intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). We applied multiregion exome sequencing (M-seq) to resolve the genetic architecture and evolutionary histories of ten ccRCCs. Ultra-deep sequencing identified ITH in all cases. We found that 73-75% of identified ccRCC driver aberrations were subclonal, confounding estimates of(More)
Ras proteins signal through direct interaction with a number of effector enzymes, including type I phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinases. Although the ability of Ras to control PI 3-kinase has been well established in manipulated cell culture models, evidence for a role of the interaction of endogenous Ras with PI 3-kinase in normal and malignant cell growth in(More)
Using homologous recombination, mice lacking cyclin D1 were generated by replacing most of the first exon of the Cyl-1 gene with sequences encoding neomycin resistance. Cyl-1(-1-) mice were viable and fertile but consistently smaller than their heterozygous or wild-type littermates. The nullizygous animals also showed two distinctive abnormalities: a severe(More)
DNA ligase IV is the most recently identified member of a family of enzymes joining DNA strand breaks in mammalian cell nuclei [1] [2]. The enzyme occurs in a complex with the XRCC4 gene product [3], an interaction mediated via its unique carboxyl terminus [4] [5]. Cells lacking XRCC4 are hypersensitive to ionising radiation and defective in V(D)J(More)
Given the associations between chronic inflammation and epithelial cancer, we studied susceptibility to skin carcinogenesis in mice deficient for the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha (refs. 5,6). TNF-alpha(-/-) mice were resistant to development of benign and malignant skin tumors, whether induced by initiation with DMBA and promotion with TPA or by(More)
Of 14 chemokine receptors investigated, only CXCR4 was expressed on ovarian cancer cells [C. J. Scotton et al., Cancer Res., 61: 4961-4965, 2001]. To further understand the role of this chemokine receptor in ovarian tumor biology, we studied the action of its ligand, CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1), on the CXCR4-expressing ovarian cancer cell lines(More)
A unique feature of SW480 and SW620 colon carcinoma cell lines is that they are derived from primary and secondary tumours resected from a single patient. As such, they may represent a valuable resource for examining genetic changes late in colon cancer progression. In order to verify this, both cell lines have been characterized to determine whether(More)
Next generation sequencing has enabled systematic discovery of mutational spectra in cancer samples. Here, we used whole genome sequencing to characterize somatic mutations and structural variation in a primary acral melanoma and its lymph node metastasis. Our data show that the somatic mutational rates in this acral melanoma sample pair were more(More)
PURPOSE This was a multinational, open-label, randomized phase III trial comparing yttrium-90-labeled murine HMFG1 (90Y-muHMFG1) plus standard treatment versus standard treatment alone in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who had attained a complete clinical remission after cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate and catalogue systematically the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the commonly used prostatic cell lines using immunocytochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of hypervariable sequences within the genome to provide a 'fingerprint' characteristic of each cell line. Materials and methods Malignant (LNCaP, LNCaP-r,(More)