Learn More
Clear cell renal carcinomas (ccRCCs) can display intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). We applied multiregion exome sequencing (M-seq) to resolve the genetic architecture and evolutionary histories of ten ccRCCs. Ultra-deep sequencing identified ITH in all cases. We found that 73-75% of identified ccRCC driver aberrations were subclonal, confounding estimates of(More)
Ras proteins signal through direct interaction with a number of effector enzymes, including type I phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinases. Although the ability of Ras to control PI 3-kinase has been well established in manipulated cell culture models, evidence for a role of the interaction of endogenous Ras with PI 3-kinase in normal and malignant cell growth in(More)
DNA ligase IV is the most recently identified member of a family of enzymes joining DNA strand breaks in mammalian cell nuclei [1] [2]. The enzyme occurs in a complex with the XRCC4 gene product [3], an interaction mediated via its unique carboxyl terminus [4] [5]. Cells lacking XRCC4 are hypersensitive to ionising radiation and defective in V(D)J(More)
Using homologous recombination, mice lacking cyclin D1 were generated by replacing most of the first exon of the Cyl-1 gene with sequences encoding neomycin resistance. Cyl-1(-1-) mice were viable and fertile but consistently smaller than their heterozygous or wild-type littermates. The nullizygous animals also showed two distinctive abnormalities: a severe(More)
Given the associations between chronic inflammation and epithelial cancer, we studied susceptibility to skin carcinogenesis in mice deficient for the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha (refs. 5,6). TNF-alpha(-/-) mice were resistant to development of benign and malignant skin tumors, whether induced by initiation with DMBA and promotion with TPA or by(More)
We undertook an in situ hybridization study to localize the mRNAs for the 72 kda type IV collagenase (MMP-2) and its specific inhibitor (TIMP-2) in 12 colorectal carcinomas, 3 adenomas, and 4 uninvolved resection margins to see how their distributions correlated with that of the reported distribution of MMP-2 protein. Labeling for MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNAs was(More)
The pS2 gene encodes for a small cysteine-rich protein, and was originally found by differential screening of a cDNA library from the human breast carcinoma cell line, MCF-7. The presence of pS2 is closely correlated with oestrogen dependence in breast carcinomas. While the function of pS2 is unknown, pS2 protein has been shown to be homologous with the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate and catalogue systematically the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the commonly used prostatic cell lines using immunocytochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of hypervariable sequences within the genome to provide a 'fingerprint' characteristic of each cell line. Materials and methods Malignant (LNCaP, LNCaP-r,(More)
BACKGROUND This work expands on recent observations that the trefoil peptides pS2 and human spasmolytic polypeptide (hSP) are expressed in the ulceration-associated cell lineage (UACL) glands developing in chronic ulcerative conditions. METHODS Trefoil peptide expression in small intestinal Crohn's disease was examined by in situ hybridization to reveal(More)
In order to understand the ability of human ovarian cancers to degrade the basement membrane, we have studied the localization and activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) 2 and 9, using in situ hybridization and quantificative zymography on sequential sections of tumor biopsies. We have related these data to expression of some of the controlling elements(More)