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The reported study employed a virtual reality (VR) system, using a head mounted display (HMD), to investigate road crossing behavior in children and young adults. Younger children (aged 5-9 years) made the greatest number of unsafe road crossings and the oldest participants (aged >19 years) the fewest. Overall performance was better (fewer unsafe road(More)
The Arabidopsis gene FCA encodes an RNA binding protein that functions to promote the floral transition. The FCA transcript is alternatively processed to yield four transcripts, the most abundant of which is polyadenylated within intron 3. We have analyzed the role of the alternative processing on the floral transition. The introduction of FCA intronless(More)
The nuclear RNA binding protein, FCA, promotes Arabidopsis reproductive development. FCA contains a WW protein interaction domain that is essential for FCA function. We have identified FY as a protein partner for this domain. FY belongs to a highly conserved group of eukaryotic proteins represented in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the RNA 3' end-processing(More)
Lignin is a major component of plant secondary cell walls. Here we describe caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) as an enzyme central to the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana cse mutants deposit less lignin than do wild-type plants, and the remaining lignin is enriched in p-hydroxyphenyl units. Phenolic metabolite profiling identified(More)
It has recently been shown that RNA 3'-end formation plays a more widespread role in controlling gene expression than previously thought. To examine the impact of regulated 3'-end formation genome-wide, we applied direct RNA sequencing to A. thaliana. Here we show the authentic transcriptome in unprecedented detail and describe the effects of 3'-end(More)
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in plant host-microbe interactions. In this study, we show that the plant RBP known as FPA, which regulates 3'-end mRNA polyadenylation, negatively regulates basal resistance to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis. A custom microarray analysis reveals that flg22, a peptide derived from(More)
In this paper we give a detailed account of the design principles and construction of activities designed for learning about the relationships between position, velocity and acceleration, and corresponding kinematics graphs. Our approach is model-based, that is, it focuses attention on the idea that students constructed their own models – in the form of(More)
We describe an iteratively designed sequence of activities involving the modelling of 1-dimensional collisions between moving objects based on programming in ToonTalk. Students aged 13-14 in two settings (London and Cyprus) investigated a number of collision situations, classified into six classes based on the relative velocities and masses of the colliding(More)
Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation influence the coding and regulatory potential of mRNAs and where transcription termination occurs. Although widespread, few regulators of this process are known. The Arabidopsis thaliana protein FPA is a rare example of a trans-acting regulator of poly(A) site choice. Analysing fpa mutants therefore provides an(More)