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Glucose is the brain's principal energy substrate. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), there appears to be a pathological decrease in the brain's ability to use glucose. Neurobiological evidence suggests that ketone bodies are an effective alternative energy substrate for the brain. Elevation of plasma ketone body levels through an oral dose of medium chain(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of intranasal insulin administration on cognition, function, cerebral glucose metabolism, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease (AD). DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING Clinical research unit of a Veterans Affairs medical(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the effects of aerobic exercise on cognition and other biomarkers associated with Alzheimer disease pathology for older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and assess the role of sex as a predictor of response. DESIGN Six-month, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. SETTING Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System(More)
Insulin has functions in the brain and dysregulation of these functions may contribute to the expression of late-life neurodegenerative disease. We provide a brief summary of research on the influence of insulin on normal brain function. We then review evidence that perturbation of this role may contribute to the symptoms and pathogenesis of various(More)
Raising insulin acutely in the periphery and in brain improves verbal memory. Intranasal insulin administration, which raises insulin acutely in the CNS without raising plasma insulin levels, provides an opportunity to determine whether these effects are mediated by central insulin or peripheral processes. Based on prior research with intravenous insulin,(More)
A meta-analysis of 27 primary studies was conducted to examine the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and driving ability for adults with dementia. When studies using a control group were included, the relationship between cognitive measures and on-road or non-road driving measures was significant for all reported domains; mean correlations(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of a 4-week high-saturated fat/high-glycemic index (HIGH) diet with a low-saturated fat/low-glycemic index (LOW) diet on insulin and lipid metabolism, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of Alzheimer disease, and cognition for healthy adults and adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). DESIGN Randomized(More)
We tested the hypothesis that levels of CSF biomarkers associated with dementia and cognitive impairment are correlated with cognitive performance in non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty-two non-demented patients with PD underwent neuropsychological testing and lumbar puncture to collect CSF. We correlated performance scores on the Logical(More)
Estradiol has potent favorable effects on brain function and behavior in animals while in human trials, the results are inconsistent. A number of potential mediating variables influencing response to estradiol have been proposed to account for this variability, 1 of which includes stress. We conducted a placebo-controlled study to examine joint and(More)
Cognitive impairment (CI) and behavioral disturbances can be the earliest symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), ultimately afflict the vast majority of PD patients, and increase caregiver burden. Our two Morris K. Udall Centers of Excellence for Parkinson's Disease Research were supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke(More)