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OBJECTIVE The objectives of this consensus conference were to evaluate the evidence for the efficacy and safety of perioperative drugs, technologies, and techniques in reducing allogeneic blood transfusion for adults undergoing cardiac surgery and to develop evidence-based recommendations for comprehensive perioperative blood management in cardiac surgery,(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal mortality in North America. Although transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the most widely used imaging modality for the assessment of cardiovascular function during pregnancy, little is known on the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The objective of the Cardiac(More)
Membranous ventricular septum aneurysm (MVSA) is an uncommon cardiac abnormality primarily associated with the spontaneous closure of a small membranous ventricular septal defect in childhood. Diagnosis of an idiopathic MVSA in an adult is exceedingly rare. We report on a man, aged 38 years, with a bilobed MVSA diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography(More)
BACKGROUND Although echocardiography has been incorporated into the diagnostic algorithm of patients with suspected infective endocarditis (IE), systematic usage in clinical practice remains ill defined. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of detecting vegetations using harmonic transthoracic echocardiography (hTTE) as compared to transesophageal(More)
This article examines the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the assessment of prosthetic heart valves. A summary of the commonly used artificial valves and their physiologic regurgitant flow patterns, as identified by color Doppler imaging, is presented. The hemodynamic evaluation of prosthetic valve stenosis using Doppler techniques is(More)
BACKGROUND Although there have been several large reviews documenting the complications following intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), most of these prior reports are almost 2 decades old and may not reflect current practices. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and types of complications following TEE in a(More)
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