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Using a recently developed database of fisheries subsidies for 148 maritime countries spanning 1989 to the present, total fisheries subsidies for the year 2003 is computed. A key feature of our estimation approach is that it explicitly deals with missing data from official sources, and includes estimates of subsidies to developing country fisheries. Our(More)
After injury GABA(A) receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) mediate robust analgesia in animals via putative restoration of post-synaptic GABA(A)-α2 and -α3 receptor function within the spinal cord. GABA can also act at GABA(A) receptors localized on primary afferent neurones to inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release and produce analgesia via(More)
The use of genetically-engineered mice has identified alpha2- and alpha3-subunit containing GABA(A) receptors as principal contributors to the spinal disinhibition that occurs after inflammation and neuropathic injury. Pharmacological comparison of subtype selective allosteric modulators such as NS11394 and L838417 with either non-selective or full GABA(A)(More)
The novel positive allosteric modulator NS11394 [3'-[5-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-benzoimidazol-1-yl]-biphenyl-2-carbonitrile] possesses a functional selectivity profile at GABA(A) receptors of alpha(5) > alpha(3) > alpha(2) > alpha(1) based on oocyte electrophysiology with human GABA(A) receptors. Compared with other subtype-selective ligands, NS11394 is(More)
Signs and symptoms of persistent pain are associated with neuronal hyperexcitability within nociceptive pathways. This manifests behaviourally as a decrease in the nociceptive threshold to sensory stimulation, and is closely correlated with altered affective pain processing and increased expression of anxiety-like symptoms. Anticonvulsant drugs can have(More)
The formalin test is used as a primary behavioural screen for assaying the antinociceptive activity of compounds in laboratory rodents. After hindpaw formalin injection, nociceptive behaviours are expressed in a biphasic pattern and correlate closely with the concentration of formalin injected. Here, the antinociceptive efficacy of six compounds used in the(More)
GABA-A receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) mediate robust analgesia in animal models of pathological pain, in part via enhancing injury-induced loss of GABA-A-α2 and -α3 receptor function within the spinal cord. As yet, a lack of clinically suitable tool compounds has prevented this concept being tested in humans. Prior to assessing the efficacy(More)
Different neurobiological mechanism(s) might contribute to evoked and non-evoked pains and to limited translational drug discovery efforts. Other variables including the pain model and sensory testing method used, dose/route/preadministration time of compound(s), lack of adverse effect profiling and level of observer experience might also contribute. With(More)