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Axonal loss is thought to be a likely cause of persistent disability after a multiple sclerosis relapse; therefore, noninvasive in vivo markers specific for axonal loss are needed. We used optic neuritis as a model of multiple sclerosis relapse to quantify axonal loss of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and secondary retinal ganglion cell loss in the(More)
We investigated single-word reading in normal subjects and patients with alexia following a left occipital infarct, using PET. The most posterior brain region to show a lateralized response was at the left occipitotemporal junction, in the inferior temporal gyrus. This region was activated when normal subjects, patients with hemianopic alexia and patients(More)
Following an episode of optic neuritis, thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer, which indicates axonal loss, is observed using optical coherence tomography. The longitudinal course of the retinal changes has not been well characterized. We performed a serial optical coherence tomography study in patients presenting with optic neuritis in order to define(More)
Axonal loss is thought to be the predominant cause of disability in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) is composed largely of unmyelinated axons of retinal ganglion cells, and is accessible to study with optical coherence tomography (OCT), giving a measure of axonal loss. OCT measures of the RNFL thickness (RNFLT) and(More)
Unilateral damage to the lateral occipital region in humans can give rise to impaired motion perception in the contralateral visual field [Plant et al. (1993), Brain, 116, 1303-1335]. We report the following characteristics of the residual vision. (i) Spatial acuity and spatial frequency discrimination are not affected. (ii) Contrast thresholds for(More)
OBJECTIVE An acquired right-sided homonymous hemianopia can result in slowed left-to-right text reading, called hemianopic alexia (HA). Patients with HA lack essential visual information to help guide ensuing reading fixations. We tested two hypotheses: first, that practice with a visual rehabilitation method that induced small-field optokinetic nystagmus(More)
Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) is an entity that was described in 2003. Early recognition of patients suffering from CRION is relevant because of the associated risk for blindness if treated inappropriately. It seems timely to have a clinical review on this recently defined entity. A systematic literature review, irrespective of(More)
OBJECTIVES Visual-field deficits following temporal lobe surgery have been reported in the literature. In this prospective study, the authors analyse their experience of visual-field deficits in 105 consecutive cases undergoing temporal-lobe surgery performed by a single surgeon, with particular consideration to the laterality of the deficit and its(More)
BACKGROUND The 2001 and 2005 McDonald criteria allow MRI evidence for dissemination in space (DIS) and dissemination in time (DIT) to be used to diagnose multiple sclerosis in patients who present with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). In 2006, new criteria were proposed in which DIS requires at least one T2 lesion in at least two of four locations(More)
Familial Danish dementia (FDD), also known as heredopathia ophthalmo-oto-encephalica, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cataracts, deafness, progressive ataxia, and dementia. Neuropathological findings include severe widespread cerebral amyloid angiopathy, hippocampal plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles, similar to Alzheimer's disease.(More)