Gordon Munro

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Spinal administration of GABA(A) receptor modulators, such as the benzodiazepine drug diazepam, partially alleviates neuropathic hypersensitivity that manifests as spontaneous pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. However, benzodiazepines are hindered by sedative impairments and other side effect issues occurring mainly as a consequence of binding to GABA(A)(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Agonists selective for the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor produce anti-hyperalgesic effects in rodent models of inflammatory pain, via direct actions on spinal pain circuits and possibly via attenuated release of peripheral pro-inflammatory mediators. Increasingly, allosteric modulation of ligand-gated receptors is(More)
The novel positive allosteric modulator NS11394 [3'-[5-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-benzoimidazol-1-yl]-biphenyl-2-carbonitrile] possesses a functional selectivity profile at GABA(A) receptors of alpha(5) > alpha(3) > alpha(2) > alpha(1) based on oocyte electrophysiology with human GABA(A) receptors. Compared with other subtype-selective ligands, NS11394 is(More)
The formalin test is used as a primary behavioural screen for assaying the antinociceptive activity of compounds in laboratory rodents. After hindpaw formalin injection, nociceptive behaviours are expressed in a biphasic pattern and correlate closely with the concentration of formalin injected. Here, the antinociceptive efficacy of six compounds used in the(More)
The effects of the Kv 7 channel modulators retigabine (opener) and XE991 (blocker) on rat bladder function were investigated ex vivo and in vivo to assess the potential of Kv 7 openers for the treatment of overactive bladder. In organ bath studies, capsaicin-stimulated rat urinary bladder rings were exposed to retigabine and XE991 and the effect on tension(More)
Signs and symptoms of persistent pain are associated with neuronal hyperexcitability within nociceptive pathways. This manifests behaviourally as a decrease in the nociceptive threshold to sensory stimulation, and is closely correlated with altered affective pain processing and increased expression of anxiety-like symptoms. Anticonvulsant drugs can have(More)
After injury GABA(A) receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) mediate robust analgesia in animals via putative restoration of post-synaptic GABA(A)-α2 and -α3 receptor function within the spinal cord. GABA can also act at GABA(A) receptors localized on primary afferent neurones to inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release and produce analgesia via(More)
Altered functioning of monoamine-containing pathways descending from supraspinal structures to the spinal dorsal horn contributes to injury-induced sensitization of nociceptive transmission. Antidepressant drugs as typified by the dual serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor duloxetine attenuate various signs and symptoms of persistent pain in(More)
Tramadol is an atypical analgesic with a unique dual mechanism of action. It acts on monoamine transporters to inhibit reuptake of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT), and consequent upon metabolism, displays potent agonist activity at micro-opioid receptors. Here, we present data for the novel compound NS7051, which was shown to have sub-micromolar(More)
Different neurobiological mechanism(s) might contribute to evoked and non-evoked pains and to limited translational drug discovery efforts. Other variables including the pain model and sensory testing method used, dose/route/preadministration time of compound(s), lack of adverse effect profiling and level of observer experience might also contribute. With(More)