Gordon J Freeman

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Functional impairment of antigen-specific T cells is a defining characteristic of many chronic infections, but the underlying mechanisms of T-cell dysfunction are not well understood. To address this question, we analysed genes expressed in functionally impaired virus-specific CD8 T cells present in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic(More)
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, deliver inhibitory signals that regulate the balance between T cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. Immune responses to foreign and self-antigens require specific and balanced responses to clear pathogens and tumors and yet maintain tolerance. Induction and maintenance of T cell(More)
Functional impairment of T cells is characteristic of many chronic mouse and human viral infections. The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1), a negative regulator of activated T cells, is markedly upregulated on the surface of exhausted virus-specific CD8 T cells in mice. Blockade of this pathway using antibodies against the(More)
The discovery of new functions for the original B7 family members, together with the identification of additional B7 and CD28 family members, have revealed new ways in which the B7:CD28 family regulates T cell activation and tolerance. B7-1/B7-2:CD28 interactions not only promote initial T cell activation but also regulate self-tolerance by supporting(More)
PD-1 is an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells. Mice deficient in PD-1 exhibit a breakdown of peripheral tolerance and demonstrate multiple autoimmune features. We report here that the ligand of PD-1 (PD-L1) is a member of the B7 gene family. Engagement of PD-1 by PD-L1 leads to the inhibition of T cell(More)
Thymectomy in mice on neonatal day 3 leads to the development of multiorgan autoimmune disease due to loss of a CD(+)CD25(+) T cell regulatory population in their peripheral lymphoid tissues. Here, we report the identification of a CD4(+) population of regulatory T cells in the circulation of humans expressing high levels of CD25 that exhibit in vitro(More)
T cell exhaustion often occurs during chronic infection and prevents optimal viral control. The molecular pathways involved in T cell exhaustion remain poorly understood. Here we show that exhausted CD8+ T cells are subject to complex layers of negative regulation resulting from the coexpression of multiple inhibitory receptors. Exhausted CD8+ T cells(More)
The B7-1/B7-2-CD28/CTLA-4 pathway is crucial in regulating T-cell activation and tolerance. New B7 and CD28 molecules have recently been discovered and new pathways have been delineated that seem to be important for regulating the responses of previously activated T cells. Several B7 homologues are expressed on cells other than professional(More)
Pathways in the B7:CD28 family of costimulatory molecules regulate T cell activation and tolerance. B7-dependent responses in Cd28(-/-)Ctla4(-/-) T cells together with reports of stimulatory and inhibitory functions for Programmed Death-1 Ligand 1 or 2 molecules (PD-L1 or PD-L2) have suggested additional receptors for these B7 family members. We show that(More)
Both the programmed death (PD) 1-PD-ligand (PD-L) pathway and regulatory T (T reg) cells are instrumental to the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. We demonstrate that PD-L1 has a pivotal role in regulating induced T reg (iT reg) cell development and sustaining iT reg cell function. PD-L1(-/-) antigen-presenting cells minimally convert naive CD4 T cells(More)