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Measures of decision sensitivity that have been applied to medical decision problems were examined. Traditional threshold proximity methods have recently been supplemented by probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and by entropy-based measures of sensitivity. The authors propose a fourth measure based upon the expected value of perfect information (EVPI),(More)
T o demonstrate post hoc robustness of decision problems to parameter estimates, analysts may conduct a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, assigning distributions to uncertain parameters and computing the probability of decision change. In contrast to classical threshold proximity methods of sensitivity analysis, no appealing graphical methods are(More)
  • G B Hazen
  • 1992
This paper introduces stochastic trees, a new modeling approach for the class of medical decision problems in which risks of mortality and morbidity may extend over time. A stochastic tree may be regarded as a continuous-time version of a Markov-cycle tree, or alternately, as a multi-state DEALE model. Optimal decisions in stochastic trees can be determined(More)
Due to organ scarcity and wait-list mortality, transplantation of donation after cardiac death (DCD) livers has increased. However, the group of patients benefiting from DCD liver transplantation is unknown. We studied the comparative effectiveness of DCD versus donation after brain death (DBD) liver transplantation. A Markov model was constructed to(More)
  • G B Hazen
  • 1993
The stochastic tree is a continuous-time version of a Markov-cycle tree, useful for constructing and solving medical decision models in which risks of mortality and morbidity may extend over time. Stochastic trees have advantages over Markov-cycle trees in graphic display and computational solution. Like the decision tree or Markov-cycle tree, stochastic(More)
Sensitivity analysis has traditionally been applied to decision models to quantify the stability of a preferred alternative to parametric variation. In the health literature, sensitivity measures have traditionally been based upon distance metrics, payoff variations, and probability measures. We advocate a new approach based on information value and argue(More)
H ealth status is inherently a multiattribute construct. We examine multiattribute utility decompositions for the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) utility model commonly employed in medical decision and cost-effectiveness analyses. We consider several independence conditions on preference, including the classical notions of preferential independence and(More)
The most common methods of sensitivity analysis (SA) in decision-analytic modeling are based either on proximity in parameter-space to decision thresholds or on the range of payoffs that accompany parameter variation. As an alternative, we propose the use of the expected value of perfect information (EVPI) as a sensitivity measure and argue from first(More)
OBJECTIVE Quality of life may represent not just quality of health but also the degree to which an individual achieves personally meaningful extrinsic goals unrelated to life duration that are not incorporated in the standard quality-adjusted life year model. The objectives of this study are to develop a typology of life goals and explore whether goal type(More)
PURPOSE To measure the degree to which people express willingness to trade life or health for nonmedical goals. METHOD In 3 studies, outpatients provided important life goals. In study 1, patients performed time-tradeoff between life-years and goal achievement and chose between states that varied in goal achievement, life expectancy, and disability; in(More)