Gordon D Harkiss

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Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV = maedi-visna in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis in goats) are distributed throughout most countries of the world, particularly Europe. Laboratories from 16 European countries established collaborations within the framework of a COST (CO-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) action sponsored(More)
Maedi visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus are closely related retroviruses that cause chronic inflammatory disease in small ruminants. The infections are characterised by insidious onset and slow progression. Diagnosis of infection is usually by serological testing. A variety of assays are available for this purpose, though the relative(More)
Lentivirus infections in small ruminants represent an economic problem affecting several European countries with important sheep-breeding industries. Programs for control and eradication of these infections are being initiated and require reliable screening assays. This communication describes the construction and evaluation of a new serological screening(More)
The HIV and visna lentiviruses induce an inflammatory reaction in the central nervous system (CNS) of the infected hosts leading to dysmyelination, demyelination, and neuronal loss. The basic domain of the transactivating Tat protein has been involved in CNS damage. Infusion of basic containing domain Tat peptides in the lateral ventricle (systemic(More)
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are classical slow retroviruses causing chronic inflammatory disease in a variety of target organs. The routes of transmission have been investigated and a large body of evidence has accumulated over many years. The main routes are through ingestion of infected colostrum and/or milk, or through inhalation of respiratory(More)
The long terminal repeats of maedi visna virus strain 1514 contain a consensus AP-1 binding site which has been shown to be important in controlling virus transcription. However, this consensus site is absent in strain EV-1. Here, we have compared the ability of oligonucleotides corresponding to LTR sequences from EV-1 with those from 1514 to bind(More)
Infection by lentiviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, Maedi-Visna virus and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus, is associated with a variety of neurological syndromes, but the mechanism by which the damage occurs to the nervous system is not known. The viruses do not infect neurons and so the neurotoxic actions must be mediated indirectly. Here(More)
Viral load may be an important indicator of disease progression in sheep infected with maedi-visna virus (MVV). To assess this variable accurately in MVV-infected sheep, a quantitative competitive-polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) was developed. A conserved region of the MVV pol gene was selected. The RT-PCR MVV pol product was cloned and mutagenised in(More)
The trans-activating visna virus and HIV-1 Tat proteins share, at their amino-acid sequence level, a significant 60% analogy on 17 consecutive residues. These homologous sequences are also found in a part of the short neurotoxin sequence from snake venom. Synthetic peptides representative of the two analogous viral sequences are, after(More)
Gene gun mucosal DNA immunization of sheep with a plasmid expressing the env gene of Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) was used to examine the protection against MVV infection in sheep from a naturally infected flock. For immunization, sheep were primed with a pcDNA plasmid (pcDNA-env) encoding the Env glycoproteins of MVV and boosted with combined pcDNA-env and(More)