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Maedi visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus are closely related retroviruses that cause chronic inflammatory disease in small ruminants. The infections are characterised by insidious onset and slow progression. Diagnosis of infection is usually by serological testing. A variety of assays are available for this purpose, though the relative(More)
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV = maedi-visna in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis in goats) are distributed throughout most countries of the world, particularly Europe. Laboratories from 16 European countries established collaborations within the framework of a COST (CO-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) action sponsored(More)
A major route of transmission of Visna/maedi virus (VMV), an ovine lentivirus, is thought to be via the respiratory tract, by inhalation of either cell-free or cell-associated virus. In previous studies, we have shown that infection via the lower respiratory tract is much more efficient than via upper respiratory tissues (T. N. McNeilly, P. Tennant, L.(More)
To determine whether systemic immunization with plasmid DNA and virus vector against visna/maedi virus (VMV) would induce protective immune responses, sheep were immunized with VMV gag and/or env sequences using particle-mediated epidermal bombardment and injection of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara. The results showed that immunization induced both(More)
The aim of this study was the development of gag and pol dual labelled probe real-time PCR and RT PCR assays to quantify the proviral load and the transcripts of the British Visna/maedi virus EV1 strain. Primers and probes were chosen based on the consensus sequences of gag and pol clones representative of EV1 genetic variants. Both PCRs had a detection(More)
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are classical slow retroviruses causing chronic inflammatory disease in a variety of target organs. The routes of transmission have been investigated and a large body of evidence has accumulated over many years. The main routes are through ingestion of infected colostrum and/or milk, or through inhalation of respiratory(More)
Lentivirus infections in small ruminants represent an economic problem affecting several European countries with important sheep-breeding industries. Programs for control and eradication of these infections are being initiated and require reliable screening assays. This communication describes the construction and evaluation of a new serological screening(More)
Infection by lentiviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, Maedi-Visna virus and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus, is associated with a variety of neurological syndromes, but the mechanism by which the damage occurs to the nervous system is not known. The viruses do not infect neurons and so the neurotoxic actions must be mediated indirectly. Here(More)
Antigen-specific sheep T-cell lines have been generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC prepared from antigen-primed animals were cultured in the presence of ovalbumin (OVA) or purified protein derivative (PPD). After 5 days of culture, activated antigen-specific cells were expanded by further culture in the presence of(More)