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Maedi visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus are closely related retroviruses that cause chronic inflammatory disease in small ruminants. The infections are characterised by insidious onset and slow progression. Diagnosis of infection is usually by serological testing. A variety of assays are available for this purpose, though the relative(More)
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV = maedi-visna in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis in goats) are distributed throughout most countries of the world, particularly Europe. Laboratories from 16 European countries established collaborations within the framework of a COST (CO-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) action sponsored(More)
A major route of transmission of Visna/maedi virus (VMV), an ovine lentivirus, is thought to be via the respiratory tract, by inhalation of either cell-free or cell-associated virus. In previous studies, we have shown that infection via the lower respiratory tract is much more efficient than via upper respiratory tissues (T. N. McNeilly, P. Tennant, L.(More)
Gene gun mucosal DNA immunization of sheep with a plasmid expressing the env gene of Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) was used to examine the protection against MVV infection in sheep from a naturally infected flock. For immunization, sheep were primed with a pcDNA plasmid (pcDNA-env) encoding the Env glycoproteins of MVV and boosted with combined pcDNA-env and(More)
A new assay for the detection of circulating immune complexes, the polyethylene glycol precipitation-complement consumption assay (PEG-CC), is described. The test is both simple and sensitive, and exhibits a high degree of specificity. Immune complexes are first isolated from serum by precipitation in 2.5% polyethylene glycol (PEG) and concentrated. They(More)
Infection by lentiviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, Maedi-Visna virus and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus, is associated with a variety of neurological syndromes, but the mechanism by which the damage occurs to the nervous system is not known. The viruses do not infect neurons and so the neurotoxic actions must be mediated indirectly. Here(More)
To determine whether systemic immunization with plasmid DNA and virus vector against visna/maedi virus (VMV) would induce protective immune responses, sheep were immunized with VMV gag and/or env sequences using particle-mediated epidermal bombardment and injection of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara. The results showed that immunization induced both(More)
Antibodies to DNA and K30p were purified by affinity procedures and tested for their ability to cross-react with K30p and DNA, respectively. Anti-ssDNA antibodies were shown to react with solid-phase K30p and be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by soluble ssDNA and K30p. Conversely, anti-K30p antibodies were found to bind immobilized ssDNA and be(More)
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are classical slow retroviruses causing chronic inflammatory disease in a variety of target organs. The routes of transmission have been investigated and a large body of evidence has accumulated over many years. The main routes are through ingestion of infected colostrum and/or milk, or through inhalation of respiratory(More)