Gordon B. Mitchell

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Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal contagious prion disease in cervids that is enzootic in some areas in North America. The disease has been found in deer, elk and moose in the USA and Canada, and in South Korea following the importation of infected animals. Here we report the first case of CWD in Europe, in a Norwegian free-ranging reindeer in(More)
Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the(More)
An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy sample testing was determined in white-tailed deer(More)
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection is an important risk factor for development of shipping fever pneumonia in feedlot cattle, and infects but does not cause morphologic evidence of damage to airway epithelial cells. We hypothesized that BVDV predisposes to bacterial pneumonia by impairing innate immune responses in airway epithelial cells. Primary(More)
Stressors such as transportation, weaning and co-mingling increase susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia in cattle and are associated with elevated levels of endogenous glucocorticoids. To determine the effect of glucocorticoids on the proteins expressed in the fluid lining the respiratory tract, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on cattle treated(More)
Bovine odorant-binding protein (OBP) may function in olfaction and defense against oxidative injury, but its role in inflammation and defense against bacterial infection has not been investigated. Expression of OBP was discovered in the bovine lung and found to undergo changes in abundance during glucocorticoid administration and stress. OBP was localized(More)
Neutrophils are important effector cells in innate and acquired immunity, but the magnitude and character of their phagocytic and bactericidal responses depend on cues derived from mediators in the local microenvironment. This study investigated the effect of bovine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on priming and(More)
We describe a simple and robust assay for the quantitative detection of prions using immuno-quantitative real-time PCR (iQ-RT-PCR) made possible by a direct conjugate of a prion-specific antibody (ICSM35) and a synthetic 99-bp DNA tail. The DNA tail was engineered to include a single ScrFI restriction site, which enabled subsequent quantification of(More)
Previously, Multimer Detection System (MDS) detected scrapie infected lambs of 8 mo age at pre-clinical stage in comparison with the normal controls. Above lamb were born from scrapie infected parent sheep (VRQ/VRQ). Here, MDS was challenged twice blindly with scrapie sheep blood samples from pre-clinical stages. These sheep showed no symptoms and they died(More)
In mammals, susceptibility to prion infection is primarily modulated by the host's cellular prion protein (PrPC) sequence. In the sheep scrapie model, a graded scale of susceptibility has been established both in vivo and in vitro based on PrPC amino acids 136, 154 and 171, leading to global breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of scrapie in sheep.(More)