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The importance of formalising the speciication of standards has been recognised for a number of years. This paper advocates the use of the formal speciication language Object-Z in the deenition of standards. Object-Z is an extension to the Z language speciically to facilitate speciication in an object-oriented style. First, the syntax and semantics of(More)
Preface This report presents Version 1 of Object-Z, an extension to the speciication language Z, which facilitates the speciication of systems in an object-oriented style. The report includes a concrete syntax and four case studies. Some aspects pertinent to object-oriented speciication are not in this version of Object-Z but are being investigated for(More)
A method for the determination of human plasma oxalate concentration by an enzymatic assay procedure is described using deproteinised plasma. The apparent concentration of oxalate in 20 normal subjects was 1.1--16.0 mumol/l (mean 7.78; S.D. 3.96). It was suspected that these results might be too high, due to the possible conversion of glyoxalate to oxalate,(More)
1. Plasma oxalate has been measured by a radioisotopic method applicable to all concentrations of plasma oxalate and renal function, and also by an enzymatic method which was only applicable to raised concentrations of plasma oxalate. 2. Where the two methods could be applied simultaneously, the agreement between them was good. 3. Plasma oxalate was 86%(More)
Crystal formation was studied in fresh urine samples after rapid concentration to standard osmolarity in a rotary evaporator at 37 degrees C. Uromucoids promoted calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate crystal formation and also induced clustering of calcium phosphate precipitates. It is postulated that uromucoid precipitation is the first stage in stone(More)
Quantitative and qualitative studies have been made of the urinary crystals from a series of normal subjects and from stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria with and without treatment with thiazide diuretics and/or cellulose phosphate. The results obtained from mid-morning unprepared subjects seemed more helpful than those obtained following overnight(More)
The technique of rapid evaporation of whole urine to standard osmolality has been studied further and quantitative measurements made of the calcium oxalate crystals resulting, firstly by a microscope method and secondly by isotope method using 14C-oxalate. It is confirmed that ultrafiltration of urine prior to evaporation leads to a large reduction in(More)
Rapid evaporation of urine to osmolarity 1200 results in a high incidence of envelope Wedellite and calcium phosphate crystals. The Wedellite crystals closely resemble those seen in untreated urine samples of stone formers. The incidence of crystalluria produced by these tests is higher in the stone formers than in the normal subjects, reduced by thiazides(More)