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In order to observe changes owing to aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the volumes of subdivisions of the hippocampus and the number of neurons of the hippocampal formation, 18 normal brains from subjects who died of nonneurological causes and had no history of long-term illness or dementia (ten of these brains comprised the aged control group) and 13(More)
The major mechanism for generating diversity of neuronal connections beyond their genetic determination is the activity-dependent stabilization and selective elimination of the initially overproduced synapses [Changeux JP, Danchin A (1976) Nature 264:705-712]. The largest number of supranumerary synapses has been recorded in the cerebral cortex of human and(More)
The small magnocellular group located within the rostrolateral extension of the basal forebrain was named and described as the nucleus subputaminalis in the human and chimpanzee brain by Ayala. Analysis of cytoarchitectonic and cytochemical characteristics of this cell group has been largely disregarded in both classical and more current studies. We(More)
Recent neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies in man have revealed ontogenetic events which coincide with broadly defined phases of behavioral and cognitive development. During the early fetal period, early produced neurons make initial synapses which form the basis for the earliest electrical activity of the human brain. The overall immaturity of(More)
The verrucae areae entorhinalis (VAE) are a characteristic feature of the human brain that occupy the anterior and posterolateral parts of the parahippocampal gyri and correspond to the islands of layer II neurons. We analyzed VAE in 60 neurologically normal subjects ranging from 23 to 85 years of age using a casting method. In 10 of these subjects the(More)
Long projection axons from the Ch4 cell group of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) provide cholinergic innervation to the neurons of the cerebral cortex. This cortical cholinergic innervation has been implicated in behavioral and cognitive functions, including learning and memory. Recent evidence revealed differences among primate species in the pattern(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) and intracellular deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau (phospho-tau) protein. Ceramides, the major molecules of sphingolipid metabolism and lipid second messengers, have been associated with AD(More)
Although substantial evidence indicates that the progression of pathological changes of the neuronal cytoskeleton is crucial in determining the severity of dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the exact causes and evolution of these changes, the initial site at which they begin, and the neuronal susceptibility levels for their development are poorly(More)
The immunocytochemical distribution of the neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was compared with neuropathological changes and with cell death related DNA damage (as revealed by in situ end labeling, ISEL) in the hippocampal formation and entorhinal cortex of 12 age-matched control subjects and 12 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Unlike(More)
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (WHD) is the most severe clinical type of spinal muscular atrophy characterized by loss of lower motor neurons and paralysis. We examined the hypothesis that disease pathogenesis is based on an inappropriate persistence of normally occurring motor neuron programmed cell death. The diagnosis of WHD was made on the basis of clinical(More)