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Complement is a part of innate immunity that has a critical role in the protection against microbial infections, bridges the innate with the adaptive immunity and initiates inflammation. Activation of the complement, by specific recognition of molecular patterns presented by an activator, for example, a pathogen cell, in the classical and lectin pathways or(More)
Complement receptors (CRs), expressed notably on myeloid and lymphoid cells, play an essential function in the elimination of complement-opsonized pathogens and apoptotic/necrotic cells. In addition, these receptors are crucial for the cross-talk between the innate and adaptive branches of the immune system. CR3 (also known as Mac-1, integrin αMβ2, or(More)
For broad protection against infection by viruses such as influenza or HIV, vaccines should elicit antibodies that bind conserved viral epitopes, such as the receptor-binding site (RBS). RBS-directed antibodies have been described for both HIV and influenza virus, and the design of immunogens to elicit them is a goal of vaccine research in both fields.(More)
Integrin α(X)β(2) (also known as complement receptor 4, p150,95, or CD11c/CD18) is expressed in the cell membrane of myeloid leukocytes. α(X)β(2) has been reported to bind a large number of structurally unrelated ligands, often with a shared molecular character in the presence of polyanionic stretches in poorly folded proteins or glucosaminoglycans.(More)
The complement system is an essential element of the innate immune response that becomes activated upon recognition of molecular patterns associated with microorganisms, abnormal host cells, and modified molecules in the extracellular environment. The resulting proteolytic cascade tags the complement activator for elimination and elicits a pro-inflammatory(More)
Germinal centers (GCs) are the primary sites of clonal B cell expansion and affinity maturation, directing the production of high-affinity antibodies. This response is a central driver of pathogenesis in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the natural history of autoreactive GCs remains unclear. Here, we present a novel(More)
As a broad-spectrum anti-microbial peptide, LL-37 plays an important role in the innate immune system. A series of previous reports implicates LL-37 as an activator of various cell surface receptor-mediated functions, including chemotaxis in integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1)-expressing cells. However, evidence is scarce concerning the direct binding of LL-37 to(More)
Hexameric DnaB helicases are often loaded at DNA replication forks by interacting with the initiator protein DnaA and/or a helicase loader (DnaC in Escherichia coli). These loaders are not universally required, and DnaB from Helicobacter pylori was found to bypass DnaC when expressed in E. coli cells. The crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori DnaB(More)
The complement system is an important part of the innate immune response to infection but may also cause severe complications during inflammation. Small molecule antagonists to complement receptor 3 (CR3) have been widely sought, but a structural basis for their mode of action is not available. We report here on the structure of the human CR3 ligand-binding(More)
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