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In culture, hippocampal neurons develop a polarized form, with a single axon and several dendrites. Transecting the axons of hippocampal neurons early in development can cause an alteration of polarity; a process that would have become a dendrite instead becomes the axon (Dotti, C. G., and G. A. Banker. 1987. Nature (Lond.). 330:254-256). To investigate(More)
The distributions of isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit were determined in mature cultured hippocampal neurons and in a polarized epithelial cell line. We find that hippocampal neurons express the alpha 1 and alpha 3 isoforms in the membranes of both axons and dendrites. In contrast the alpha 1 and alpha 3 proteins are exclusively basolateral when(More)
Outgrowth of distinct axonal and dendritic processes is essential for the development of the functional polarity of nerve cells. In cultures of neurons from the hippocampus, where the differential outgrowth of axons and dendrites is readily discernible, we have sought molecules that might underlie the distinct modes of elongation of these two types of(More)
Axon specification is a crucial, early step in neuronal development, but little is known about how this event is controlled in vivo. To test the hypothesis that local presentation of growth-promoting molecules can direct axon specification, we cultured hippocampal neurons on substrates patterned with stripes of poly-L-lysine and either laminin (LN) or the(More)
Hippocampal neurons growing in culture initially extend several, short minor processes that have the potential to become either axons or dendrites. The first expression of polarity occurs when one of these minor processes begins to elongate rapidly, becoming the axon. Before axonal outgrowth, the growth-associated protein GAP-43 is distributed equally among(More)
We are interested in the relationship between the cytoskeleton and the organization of polarized cell morphology. We show here that the growth cones of hippocampal neurons in culture are specifically stained by a monoclonal antibody called 13H9. In other systems, the antigen recognized by 13H9 is associated with marginal bands of chicken erythrocytes and(More)
In time-lapse video recordings of hippocampal neurons in culture, we have identified previously uncharacterized structures, nicknamed "waves," that exhibit lamellipodial activity closely resembling that of growth cones, but which periodically emerge at the base of axons and travel distally at an average rate of 3 microm/min. In electron micrographs of(More)
GAP-43, a neuron specific growth-associated protein, is selectively distributed to the axonal domain in developing neurons; it is absent from dendrites and their growth cones. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we have further examined the distribution of GAP-43 during the development of hippocampal neurons in culture, in order to determine when this(More)
A fundamental step in neuronal development is the acquisition of a polarized form, with distinct axons and dendrites. Although the ability to develop a polarized form appears to be largely an intrinsic property of neurons, it can be influenced by environmental cues. For example, in cell cultures substrate and diffusible factors can enhance and orient axonal(More)