Gopenath Thangaraj

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Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are the decisive enzymatic activities regulating the availability of acetylcholine (ACh) at a given synaptic or nonsynaptic locus. The only cholinergic cells of the mature inner retina are the so-called starburst amacrine cells (SACs). A type-I SAC, found at the outer border of the inner(More)
Structurally stable in vitro-model systems are indispensible to analyse neural development during embryogenesis, follow cellular differentiation and evaluate neurotoxicological or growth factor effects. Here we describe a three-dimensional, long-term in vitro-culture system of the embryonic chick retina which supports photoreceptor development. Retinal(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a most remarkable protein, not only because it is one of the fastest enzymes in nature, but also since it appears in many molecular forms and is regulated by elaborate genetic networks. AChE is expressed in many tissues during development and in mature organisms, as well as in healthy and diseased states. In search for(More)
Gliotoxic responses complicate human eye diseases, the causes of which often remain obscure. Here, we activated Müller cells (MCs) by the gliotoxin DL-α-aminoadipate (AAA) and assayed possible protective effects by pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in RPE-free retinal explants of the E6 chick embryo. These models are suited to analyze gliotoxic(More)
As a means to analyze anti-inflammatory effects by radiation and/or by cholinergic mechanisms, we found that cultured primary human osteoblasts express most cholinergic components. After X-ray irradiation, their level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was strongly elevated. As a 3D model, we cultured mesenchymal stem cells isolated from E11 mouse embryos as(More)
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