Gonzalo Yebra

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BACKGROUND Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and(More)
Although HIV-1 clade B variants are predominant in Western Europe, non-B subtypes are rapidly spreading, mainly due to immigration from endemic regions. All newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected individuals at a HIV/AIDS clinic in Madrid from 2000 to 2007 were identified. Subtype assignment was based on phylogenetic analysis of pol sequences from plasma specimens(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) is stabilizing or decreasing in developed countries. However, this trend is not specifically evaluated among immigrants from regions without well-implemented antiretroviral strategies. METHODS TDR trends during 1996-2010 were analyzed among naïve HIV-infected patients in Spain, considering(More)
BACKGROUND The combination of phylogenetic analyses of HIV sequences with patients' demographic data allows us to understand local HIV transmission, a necessary knowledge for designing prevention strategies. The Community of Madrid represents a challenge for the control of HIV epidemic in Spain given its high HIV prevalence and increasing proportion of(More)
Genotypic resistance algorithms interpret drug-resistance mutations, but are mainly developed for HIV-1 subtype B, meanwhile non-B subtypes cause 90% of worldwide infections. They include clade-specific amino acid at drug-resistance positions different than subtype B. This study explores: (i) the variability at resistance-related positions in 128 non-B and(More)
HIV-1 group M is classified into 9 subtypes, as well as recombinants favored by coinfection and superinfection events with different variants. Although HIV-1 subtype B is predominant in Europe, intersubtype recombinants are increasing in prevalence and complexity. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of pol sequences were performed to detect the HIV-1(More)
The presence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) threatens the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment. We aimed to assess the changes in TDR prevalence over the last decade in Madrid, Spain, to verify the role of the patients’ risk groups in these changes. We analysed the trends of TDR between 2000 and 2011 in a cohort of 1,022 naïve HIV-infected(More)
El Salvador harbours one of the largest Central American human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics, but few studies have analysed it in depth. Here, we describe the presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV variants in the HIV-infected adult population in El Salvador. Dried blood spots from 119 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive adults(More)
HIV-1 drug-resistance transmission compromises the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy. Thus, epidemiological studies of resistance in naïve patients acquire a major relevance for the first treatment design. However, their methodological heterogeneity complicates the comparison of results. The global transmitted primary resistance prevalence in Spain(More)