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Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) improve gait after treadmill training and while they are walking over the treadmill. However, the mechanisms of these improvements have not been addressed. We designed a treadmill simulator without a belt that could move on a walkway in a constant speed, in order to explore the mechanism underlying treadmill walking(More)
Within the motor system, cortical areas such as the primary motor cortex (M1) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), are thought to be activated during the observation of actions performed by others. However, it is not known how the connections between these areas become active during action observation or whether these connections are modulated by the(More)
BACKGROUND Gait impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is characterized by the inability to generate appropriate stride length. Treadmill training has been proposed as a therapeutic tool for PD patients. However, it remains unknown whether treadmill training effects are different from overground walking training. Thus, our goal was to explore the(More)
OBJECTIVE Several studies suggest that transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) can have a variety of effects on the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we tried to replicate the physiological effects of TENS and to explore its effects on intracortical circuits. METHODS We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and spinal reflex testing(More)
Startle stimuli lead to shorter reaction times in control subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, non-startle stimuli also enhance movement initiation in PD. We wanted to examine whether a startle-triggered movement would retain similar kinematic and EMG-related characteristics compared to one induced by a non-startle external cue in PD(More)
Central and peripheral fatigue have been explored during and after running or cycling exercises. However, the fatigue mechanisms associated with a short maximal cycling exercise (30 s Wingate test) have not been investigated. In this study, 10 volunteer subjects performed several isometric voluntary contractions using the leg muscle extensors before and(More)
AIM It is accepted that leg stiffness (Kleg ) increases when surface stiffness decreases, and vice versa. However, little is known how the central nervous system fulfils this task. To understand the effect of surface stiffness on the neural control of stretch-shortening cycle movements, this study aimed to compare modulation of spinal and corticospinal(More)
After repeated jumps over an elastic surface (e.g. a trampoline), subjects usually report a strange sensation when they jump again overground (e.g. they feel unable to jump because their body feels heavy). However, the motor and sensory effects of exposure to an elastic surface are unknown. In the present study, we examined the motor and perceptual effects(More)
Jumping on an elastic surface produces a number of sensory and motor adjustments. This effect caused by jumping on the trampoline has been called "trampoline aftereffect". The objective of the present study was to investigate the neuromuscular response related with this effect. A group of 15 subjects took part in an experimental session, where simultaneous(More)
Players (eg, basketball, soccer, and football) often use a static bicycle during a game to maintain warming. However, the effectiveness of this procedure has not been addressed in the literature. Thus, it remains unknown whether low-intensity cycling movement can affect explosive movement performance. In this study, 10 male subjects performed(More)