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The behavior of individuals determines the strength and outcome of ecological interactions, which drive population, community, and ecosystem organization. Bio-logging, such as telemetry and animal-borne imaging, provides essential individual viewpoints, tracks, and life histories, but requires capture of individuals and is often impractical to scale. Recent(More)
Action potentials have been shown to shunt synaptic charge to a degree that depends on their waveform. In this way, they participate in synaptic integration, and thus in the probability of generating succeeding action potentials, in a shape-dependent way. Here we test whether the different action potential waveforms produced during dynamical stimulation in(More)
Synapses are specialized communication points between neurons, and their number is a major determinant of cognitive abilities. These dynamic structures undergo developmental- and activity-dependent changes. During brain aging and certain diseases, synapses are gradually lost, causing mental decline. It is, thus, critical to identify the molecular mechanisms(More)
We present a method to measure the rate of information transfer for any continuous signals of finite duration without assumptions. After testing the method with simulated responses, we measure the encoding performance of Calliphora photoreceptors. We find that especially for naturalistic stimulation the responses are nonlinear and noise is nonadditive, and(More)
A diversity of decision-making systems has been observed in animal collectives. In some species, choices depend on the differences of the numbers of animals that have chosen each of the available options, whereas in other species on the relative differences (a behavior known as Weber's law), or follow more complex rules. We here show that this diversity of(More)
Animals in groups touch each other, move in paths that cross, and interact in complex ways. Current video tracking methods sometimes switch identities of unmarked individuals during these interactions. These errors propagate and result in random assignments after a few minutes unless manually corrected. We present idTracker, a multitracking algorithm that(More)
Auditory pattern recognition by the CNS is a fundamental process in acoustic communication. Because crickets communicate with stereotyped patterns of constant frequency syllables, they are established models to investigate the neuronal mechanisms of auditory pattern recognition. Here we provide evidence that for the neural processing of amplitude-modulated(More)
In cortical neurones, analogue dendritic potentials are thought to be encoded into patterns of digital spikes. According to this view, neuronal codes and computations are based on the temporal patterns of spikes: spike times, bursts or spike rates. Recently, we proposed an 'action potential waveform code' for cortical pyramidal neurones in which the spike(More)
Reduction of costs in biological signalling seems an evolutionary advantage, but recent experiments have shown signalling codes shifted to signals of high cost with an underutilization of low-cost signals. Here I derive a theory for efficient signalling that includes both errors and costs as constraints and I show that errors in the efficient translation of(More)
Pump activity is a homeostatic mechanism that maintains ionic gradients. Here we examined whether the slow reduction in excitability induced by sodium-pump activity that has been seen in many neuronal types is also involved in neuronal coding. We took intracellular recordings from a spike-bursting sensory neuron in the leech Hirudo medicinalis in response(More)