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Hyperhomocysteinemia increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanism is elusive. Here, we found that high plasma homocysteine induced by vena caudalis injection for 2 weeks could induce AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple sites in rat brain hippocampus. Homocysteine inhibited the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) with a(More)
The activity of protein phosphatase-2A (PP-2A) is significantly suppressed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, but the mechanism is not understood. Here, we found an in vivo association of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) with inhibitor-2 of PP-2A (I(2)(PP-2A)). The activation of GSK-3 resulted in accumulation of I(2)(PP-2A) with(More)
Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) has been implicated as a key molecule in the neurodegenerative cascades of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Humanin (HN) is a secretory peptide that inhibits the neurotoxicity of Aβ. However, the mechanism(s) by which HN exerts its neuroprotection against Aβ-induced ADlike pathological changes and memory deficits are yet to be completely(More)
Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) may induce memory deficits with β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation. Simultaneous supplement of folate and vitamin B12 partially restored the plasma homocysteine level and attenuated tau hyperphosphorylation, Aβ accumulation and memory impairments induced by Hhcy. However, folate and vitamin B12 treatment(More)
A chronic neuron loss is the cardinal pathology in Alzheimer disease (AD), but it is still not understood why most neurons in AD brain do not accomplish apoptosis even though they are actually exposed to an environment with enriched proapoptotic factors. Protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor-2 (I(2)(PP2A)), an endogenous PP2A inhibitor, is significantly(More)
Dysfunction of proteasome contributes to the accumulation of the abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau in Alzheimer's disease. However, whether tau hyperphosphorylation and accumulation affect the activity of proteasome is elusive. Here we found that a moderate tau phosphorylation activated the trypsin-like activity of proteasome, whereas further(More)
An intrinsic link between proteasome and tau degradation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been suggested, however, the role of proteasome in the proteolysis of tau is still uncertain. Here, we investigated the influence of proteasome inhibition on the accumulation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, solubility of tau and the memory retention in rats. We(More)
One of the earliest neuropathological changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) is the accumulation of astrocytes at sites of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits, but the cause of this cellular response is unclear. As the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is significantly decreased in the AD brains, we studied the role of PP2A in astrocytes migration. We observed(More)
Participation in cognitively stimulating activities can preserve memory capacities in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we used a rat model with hyperhomocysteinemia, an independent risk factor of AD, to study whether spatial training could remodel the synaptic and/or dendritic plasticity and the key(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by profound synapse loss and impairments of learning and memory. Magnesium affects many biochemical mechanisms that are vital for neuronal properties and synaptic plasticity. Recent studies have demonstrated that the serum and brain magnesium levels are decreased in AD patients; however, the exact role of magnesium(More)