Gonasagrie Lulu Nair

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BACKGROUND The rates of death are high among patients with coinfection with tuberculosis and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The optimal timing for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in relation to tuberculosis therapy remains controversial. METHODS In an open-label, randomized, controlled trial in Durban, South Africa, we assigned 642(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported that integrating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with tuberculosis treatment reduces mortality. However, the timing for the initiation of ART during tuberculosis treatment remains unresolved. METHODS We conducted a three-group, open-label, randomized, controlled trial in South Africa involving 642 ambulatory patients, all(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral medications that are used as prophylaxis can prevent acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, in clinical trials among African women, the incidence of HIV-1 infection was not reduced, probably because of low adherence. Longer-acting methods of drug delivery, such as vaginal rings, may simplify(More)
A recent analysis from South Africa reported no association between age-disparate relationships and HIV-1 acquisition. We assessed the association between male partner age and HIV-1 acquisition among South African women participating in the VOICE trial. Of 4077 women enrolled, 3789 had complete data; 26% and 5% reported having a partner >5 and >10 years(More)
The Wisebag™, a lunchbag-style container with an electronic events-monitoring system, was designed as a real-time indirect objective measure of microbicide gel use. Due to cost, alternative functionalities (i.e. use of offline and dummy versions) were explored. We conducted a three-arm, double-blinded pilot study among 50 HIV-negative women in Durban, South(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop and validate an HIV risk assessment tool to predict HIV acquisition among African women. DESIGN Data were analyzed from 3 randomized trials of biomedical HIV prevention interventions among African women (VOICE, HPTN 035, and FEM-PrEP). METHODS We implemented standard methods for the development of clinical prediction rules to(More)
BACKGROUND Concerns about the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) remain a barrier to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation during antituberculosis treatment in co-infected patients. OBJECTIVE To assess IRIS incidence, severity, and outcomes relative to the timing of ART initiation in patients with HIV-related tuberculosis. DESIGN(More)
BACKGROUND Several observational studies have reported that HIV-1 acquisition seems to be higher in women who use depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) than in those who do not use hormonal contraception. We aimed to assess whether two injectable progestin-only contraceptives, DMPA and norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), confer different risks of HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND Frequency of drug changes in combination antiretroviral therapy among patients starting both tuberculosis (TB) and HIV therapy, as a result of treatment-limiting toxicity or virological failure, is not well established. METHODS Patients in the Starting Antiretroviral Therapy at Three Points in Tuberculosis (SAPiT) trial were randomized to(More)
BACKGROUND Placebo-controlled HIV-1 prevention trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have not generally used concurrent measurement of adherence because of the potential risk of unblinding. However, several pre-exposure prophylaxis trials for HIV-1 prevention among women failed to show effectiveness because of low product adherence. Evaluation of(More)