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This study examines ozone (O 3) predictions from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 4.5 and discusses potential factors influencing the model results. Daily maximum 8-h average O 3 levels are largely underpredicted when observed O 3 levels are above 85 ppb and overpredicted when they are below 35 ppb. Using a clustering approach,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease and to assess whether cigarette smoking influences the association. DESIGN Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in drinking water from wells and urine. SETTING General population in Araihazar, Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS 11,746 men(More)
BACKGROUND Few prospective studies have evaluated the influence of arsenic methylation capacity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the association of arsenic exposure from drinking water and arsenic methylation capacity with CVD risk. METHOD We conducted a case-cohort study of 369 incident fatal and nonfatal cases of CVD,(More)
BACKGROUND Limited data are available on smoking-related mortality in low-income countries, where both chronic disease burden and prevalence of smoking are increasing. METHODS Using data on 20,033 individuals in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh, we prospectively evaluated the association between tobacco smoking and(More)
Predictions of nitrous acid from the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system are compared with the measurements from the 2001 Northeast Oxidant and Particle Study. Four different sources of nitrous acid were considered in the study: gas-phase reactions, direct emissions, a heterogeneous reaction, and a surface photolysis reaction. When only(More)
This paper presents model estimates of the effect of chlorine emissions on atmospheric ozone concentrations in the eastern United States. The model included anthropogenic molecular chlorine emissions, anthropogenic hypochlorous acid emissions from cooling towers and swimming pools, and chlorine released from sea-salt aerosols. The release of chlorine(More)
BACKGROUND Millions of people worldwide are chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water, including 35-77 million people in Bangladesh. The association between arsenic exposure and mortality rate has not been prospectively investigated by use of individual-level data. We therefore prospectively assessed whether chronic and recent changes in arsenic(More)
An updated and expanded version of the Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05) has been incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to more accurately simulate wintertime, pristine, and high-altitude situations. The CB05 mechanism has nearly 2 times the number of reactions relative to the previous version of the Carbon Bond mechanism(More)
SPECIATE is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) repository of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) speciation profiles of air pollution sources. These source profiles can be used to (1) provide input to chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor models; (2) verify profiles derived from ambient measurements by multivariate(More)
BACKGROUND Arsenic exposure from drinking water has been associated with heart disease; however, underlying mechanisms are uncertain. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the association between a history of arsenic exposure from drinking water and the prolongation of heart rate-corrected QT (QTc), PR, and QRS intervals. METHOD We conducted a study of 1,715(More)