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Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) promotes proliferation of breast cancer cells, whereas tumor suppressor protein p53 impedes proliferation of cells with genomic damage. Whether there is a direct link between these two antagonistic pathways has remained unclear. Here we report that ERalpha binds directly to p53 and represses its function. The activation(More)
Growing evidence suggests a role for the antiapoptotic protein survivin in promotion of cancer cell G1/S transition and proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Further, although upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) by p53 plays an important role in p53-mediated cell G1 arrests in response to various distresses, it is unknown whether survivin(More)
Beclin 1 is an essential mediator of autophagy and a regulator of cell growth and cell death. We examined the effect of Beclin 1 overexpression on the action of estradiol (E(2)) and two antiestrogens, raloxifene and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, in estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation studies showed that(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal cascades involved in cell growth, cell death, mitogenesis, angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. ROS are produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the mitochondria. It is estimated that 2-4% of the oxygen consumed during OXPHOS is converted to ROS. Besides mitochondria, NADPH-oxidase 1 (Nox1) also(More)
In the present study, we showed that a single-dose treatment of normal breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A, for 72 h with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) resulted in a transformed phenotype. The anchorage-dependent growth of these cells was decreased due to increased cell cycle arrest in S-G2/M phase; however, the surviving cells developed resistance due(More)
Several gene transcription regulators considered solely localized within the nuclear compartment are being reported to be present in the mitochondria as well. There is growing interest in the role of mitochondria in regulating cellular metabolism in normal and disease states. Various findings demonstrate the importance of crosstalk between nuclear and(More)
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) plays an important role in the onset and progression of breast cancer, whereas p53 functions as a major tumor suppressor. We previously reported that ERalpha binds to p53, resulting in inhibition of transcriptional regulation by p53. Here, we report on the molecular mechanisms by which ERalpha suppresses p53's(More)
Although it is clear that p53 plays a pivotal role in G1/G2 checkpoints to conserve genomic integrity, its role in S phase checkpoint is less well understood. Recently, it has been reported that p53 is transcriptionally impaired even though it is stabilized during replication blockade. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not known. In the(More)
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and tumor suppressor protein p53 exert opposing effects on cellular proliferation. As a transcriptional regulator, p53 is capable of activating or repressing various target genes. We have previously reported that ERalpha binds directly to p53, leading to down-regulation of transcriptional activation by p53. In addition to(More)
BE-3-3-3-3 (1,15-(ethylamino)4,8,12-triazapentadecane) is a bis(ethyl)polyamine analogue under investigation as a therapeutic agent for breast cancer. Since estradiol (E2) is a critical regulatory molecule in the growth of breast cancer, we examined the effect of BE-3-3-3-3 on estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive MCF-7 cells in the presence and absence of E2.(More)