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Spatial context supports memory retrieval in adults. To understand the development of these effects, context effects on object recognition were tested in neurotypical children ages 3 years to adulthood (n 3-6 years = 34, n 10-16 years = 32, n college age = 22) and individuals with Down syndrome (DS) ages 10-29 years (n = 21). Participants engaged in an(More)
This study examined individual differences in ADHD symptoms and executive function (EF) in children with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, a gene often linked to ADHD in people without DS. Participants included 68 individuals with DS (7-21 years), assessed through laboratory tasks, caregiver reports, and experimenter(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have demonstrated that individuals with Down syndrome (DS) present both central and verbal working memory deficits compared with controls matched for mental age, whereas evidence on visuospatial working memory (VSWM) has remained ambiguous. The present paper uses a battery of VSWM tasks to test the hypothesis that individuals with(More)
AIM Good-quality sleep is essential for normal learning and memory. Sleep fragmentation and disrupted sleep architecture are commonly observed throughout the lifespan of individuals with Down syndrome, a condition marked by cognitive deficits emerging within the first few months of life. While obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is known to contribute(More)
The study of cognitive function in Down syndrome (DS) has advanced rapidly in the past decade. Mouse models have generated data regarding the neurological basis for the specific cognitive profile of DS (i.e., deficits in aspects of hippocampal, prefrontal, and cerebellar function) and have uncovered pharmacological treatments with the potential to affect(More)
The high prevalence of sleep disorders, particularly obstructive sleep apnea, is well established in children with Down syndrome. However, only a few studies have focused on older children and young adults in this population. Given the presence of sleep disorders and the early emergence of Alzheimer's disease, more work is needed to examine the relationship(More)
BACKGROUND While it has been common practice to discourage second language learning in neurodevelopmental disorders involving language impairment, little is known about the effects of second language exposure (SLE) on broader cognitive function in these children. Past studies have not found differences on language tasks in children with Down syndrome (DS)(More)
Recent evidence has suggested that sleep may facilitate language learning. This study examined variation in language ability in 29 toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to levels of sleep disruption. Toddlers with DS and poor sleep (66%, n = 19) showed greater deficits on parent-reported and objective measures of language, including vocabulary and(More)
A multisite study investigated the test-retest reliability and practice effects of a battery of assessments to measure neurocognitive function in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The study aimed to establish the appropriateness of these measures as potential endpoints for clinical trials. Neurocognitive tasks and parent report measures comprising the(More)
Recent studies have suggested that Boundary Extension (BE), a scene construction error, may be linked to the function of the hippocampus. In this study, we tested BE in two groups with variations in hippocampal development and disorder: a typically developing sample ranging from preschool to adolescence and individuals with Down syndrome. We assessed BE(More)